Form 10-12G/A
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 11, 2013

File No. 000-54899

 

 

 

U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

Amendment No. 1

to

FORM 10

 

 

GENERAL FORM FOR REGISTRATION OF SECURITIES

PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE

SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

 

CARLYLE GMS FINANCE, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in charter)

 

 

 

Maryland   80-0789789

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or registration)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

520 Madison Avenue, 38th Floor, New York, NY   10022
(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)

(212) 813-4900

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

with copies to:

 

Ian J. Sandler

General Counsel and Chief Operating Officer

Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc.

520 Madison Avenue, 38th Floor

New York, NY 10022

(212) 813-4895

 

William G. Farrar

Glen T. Schleyer

Sullivan & Cromwell LLP

125 Broad Street

New York, NY 10004

(212) 558-4000

Securities to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

None

Securities to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

(Title of class)

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer   ¨    Accelerated filer   ¨
Non-accelerated filer   þ  (do not check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company   ¨

 

 

 


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

         Page  

Explanatory Note

     1   

Forward-Looking Statements

     2   

Item 1.

 

Business

     4   

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

     33   

Item 2.

 

Financial Information

     57   

Item 3.

 

Properties

     63   

Item 4.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management

     63   

Item 5.

 

Directors and Executive Officers

     63   

Item 6.

 

Executive Compensation

     70   

Item 7.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

     70   

Item 8.

 

Legal Proceedings

     73   

Item 9.

 

Market Price of and Dividends on the Registrant’s Common Equity and Related Stockholder Matters

     75   

Item 10.

 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

     77   

Item 11.

 

Description of Registrant’s Securities to be Registered

     77   

Item 12.

 

Indemnification of Directors and Officers

     84   

Item 13.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

     84   

Item 14.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

     84   

Item 15.

 

Financial Statements and Exhibits

     84   

EXPLANATORY NOTE

Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc. is filing this Amendment No. 1 to the registration statement on Form 10 (the “Registration Statement”) with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), on a voluntary basis in order to permit it to file an election to be regulated as a business development company (a “BDC”) under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), and to provide current public information to the investment community and to comply with applicable requirements in the event of the future quotation or listing of its securities on a national securities exchange or other public trading market.

In this Registration Statement, except where the context suggests otherwise:

 

   

the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” “Company” and “Carlyle GMS Finance” refer to Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc.;

 

   

the terms “CGMSIM,” “Adviser” and “Investment Adviser” refer to Carlyle GMS Investment Management L.L.C., our investment adviser;

 

   

the terms “CGMSFA” and “Administrator” refer to Carlyle GMS Finance Administration, LLC, our administrator;

 

   

the terms “CELF Advisors LLP” and “CELF” refer to CELF Advisors LLP, our sub-administrator;

 

   

the term “Churchill Financial” refers to Churchill Financial LLC, which presently serves as the collateral manager for Churchill Financial Cayman Ltd. (“Churchill Cayman”);

 

   

the term “CLO” refers to collateralized loan obligation vehicle;

 

   

the term “Churchill Financial Loan Investments” refers to all first lien senior secured and second lien loan investments sourced, funded and managed by the Churchill Financial Investment Team (defined below). These first lien senior secured and second lien loan investments were held predominately through Churchill Cayman as well as through affiliated entities in limited circumstances;

 

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the term “Loan Investments” refers to first lien senior secured and second lien loans;

 

   

the term “our Investment Committee” refers to the investment committee at CGMSIM that is responsible for reviewing and approving our investments; and

 

   

the term “Carlyle” refers to our affiliate, The Carlyle Group L.P., a leading global alternative asset manager with more than $170 billion in assets under management across 113 active funds and 67 fund of funds vehicles as of December 31, 2012, and the term “GMS” refers to Carlyle’s Global Market Strategies platform.

Once this Registration Statement has been deemed effective, we will be subject to the requirements of Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act, including the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, which will require us, among other things, to file annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and current reports on Form 8-K, and we will be required to comply with all other obligations of the Exchange Act applicable to issuers filing registration statements pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act.

Shortly after the effectiveness of this Registration Statement, we intend to file an election to be regulated as a BDC under the 1940 Act. Upon filing of such election, we will become subject to the 1940 Act requirements applicable to BDCs.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Registration Statement contains forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Such statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors and undue reliance should not be placed thereon. These forward-looking statements are not historical facts, but rather are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about our company, our current and prospective portfolio investments, our industry, our beliefs and opinions, and our assumptions. Words such as “anticipates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “will,” “may,” “continue,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “targets,” “projects,” “outlook,” “potential,” “predicts” and variations of these words and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors, some of which are beyond our control and difficult to predict and could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or forecasted in the forward-looking statements, including without limitation:

 

   

an economic downturn could impair our portfolio companies’ ability to continue to operate, which could lead to the loss of some or all of our investments in such portfolio companies;

 

   

a contraction of available credit could impair our lending and investment activities;

 

   

interest rate volatility could adversely affect our results, particularly if we elect to use leverage as part of our investment strategy;

 

   

currency fluctuations could adversely affect the results of our investments in foreign companies, particularly to the extent that we receive payments denominated in foreign currency rather than U.S. dollars;

 

   

our future operating results;

 

   

our business prospects and the prospects of our portfolio companies;

 

   

our contractual arrangements and relationships with third parties;

 

   

the ability of our portfolio companies to achieve their objectives;

 

   

competition with other entities and our affiliates for investment opportunities;

 

   

an inability to replicate the historical success of Carlyle, Churchill Financial, Churchill Cayman or the Churchill Financial Loan Investments;

 

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the speculative and illiquid nature of our investments;

 

   

the use of borrowed money to finance a portion of our investments;

 

   

the adequacy of our financing sources and working capital;

 

   

the costs associated with being a public entity;

 

   

the loss of key personnel;

 

   

the timing of cash flows, if any, from the operations of our portfolio companies;

 

   

the ability of our Investment Adviser to locate suitable investments for us and to monitor and administer our investments;

 

   

the ability of The Carlyle Group Employee Co., L.L.C. and CELF to attract and retain highly talented professionals that can provide services to our Investment Adviser and administrator;

 

   

our ability to qualify and maintain our qualification as a regulated investment company, or “RIC,” under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the “Code,” and as a BDC;

 

   

the effect of legal, tax and regulatory changes; and

 

   

the other risks, uncertainties and other factors we identify under “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Registration Statement.

Although we believe that the assumptions on which these forward-looking statements are based are reasonable, any of those assumptions could prove to be inaccurate, and as a result, the forward-looking statements based on those assumptions also could be inaccurate. In light of these and other uncertainties, the inclusion of a projection or forward-looking statement in this Registration Statement should not be regarded as a representation by us that our plans and objectives will be achieved. These risks and uncertainties include those described or identified in the section entitled “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Registration Statement. These forward-looking statements apply only as of the date of this Registration Statement. Moreover, we assume no duty and do not undertake to update the forward-looking statements. Because we are an investment company, the forward-looking statements and projections contained in this Registration Statement are excluded from the safe harbor protection provided by Section 21E of the Exchange Act.

 

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ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Carlyle GMS Finance

We are a newly organized Maryland corporation, formed in February 2012, structured as an externally managed, non-diversified closed-end investment company. We intend to elect to be treated as a BDC under the 1940 Act shortly following effectiveness of this Registration Statement. In addition, for tax purposes we intend to elect to be treated as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. We will be externally managed by CGMSIM, an investment adviser that is registered with the SEC under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the “Advisers Act”). CGMSFA will provide the administrative services necessary for us to operate. Both CGMSIM and CGMSFA are wholly owned subsidiaries of Carlyle, a global alternative asset manager with more than $170 billion of assets under management as of December 31, 2012. The Company is an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). The Company has irrevocably elected to opt out of the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards pursuant to Section 107(b) of the JOBS Act, and, as a result, the Company will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies. Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that our decision to opt out of the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards is irrevocable.

Our investment objective is to generate current income and capital appreciation primarily through debt investments in U.S. middle market companies with approximately $10 million to $100 million of earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”). We will seek to achieve our investment objective by investing primarily in first lien senior secured and unitranche loans to private U.S. middle market companies that are, in many cases, controlled by private equity investment firms (“Middle Market Senior Loans”). First lien senior secured loans typically pay interest at rates which are determined periodically on the basis of a floating base lending rate, primarily the London-Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) plus a premium. “Unitranche” loans are those that typically have a first lien on all assets of the borrower but provide leverage levels comparable to a combination of first lien and second lien or subordinated loans. Depending on market conditions, we expect that between 70% and 80% of the value of our assets (including the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes) will be invested in Middle Market Senior Loans, with the balance invested in higher-yielding investments, which may include middle market junior loans such as corporate mezzanine loans, equity co-investments, broadly syndicated first lien senior secured loans and second lien loans, high-yield bonds, structured products and/or other opportunistic investments (“Opportunistic Investments”). The Middle Market Senior Loans will, if rated, generally be rated below investment grade. We may invest up to 30% of our portfolio opportunistically in “non-qualifying assets.” See “Item 1. Business — Regulation as a Business Development Company — Qualifying Assets.”

Our business model will leverage, through our Adviser, Carlyle’s extensive network of relationships with private equity investment firms, other middle market lenders, financial advisors and experienced management teams to source debt investments in middle market companies and to source other high-yielding investments that provide attractive risk-adjusted returns. We expect that our investments will generally range between $5 million and $25 million, although we expect that the size of our investments may increase as our business grows. However, we do not expect any single investment to be larger than 10% of our gross assets once we are fully invested. We intend to maintain a strong focus on credit quality, including a high level of investment discipline and selectivity. We believe that a significant opportunity exists to achieve attractive risk-adjusted returns in the senior lending space due to a general lack of bank and other financing alternatives for growing middle market companies. We believe that recent-vintage middle market first lien senior secured loans represent attractive investment opportunities as evidenced by their superior pricing, more conservative borrowing terms and prudent deal structures as compared to their larger, broadly syndicated brethren.

The CGMSIM team managing our investments will comprise a majority of the investment team made available to Churchill Financial (“Churchill Financial Investment Team”) along with investment professionals from the broader GMS platform (“CGMSIM Investment Team”).

 

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Churchill Financial is a leading provider of senior debt financing to middle market companies predominately through Churchill Cayman, a $1.4 billion middle market CLO, as of December 31, 2012. On November 18, 2011, Churchill Financial and its primary asset, the collateral management contract of Churchill Cayman, were acquired by Carlyle. The Churchill Financial Investment Team and designated GMS investment professionals will form the exclusive ongoing Carlyle platform for U.S. middle market debt investments. The Churchill Financial Investment Team together with the designated GMS investment professionals will be responsible for sourcing and managing the Company’s Middle Market Senior Loans portfolio as well as the Company’s middle market Opportunistic Investments comprised of junior capital investments (such as mezzanine, second lien loans and equity co-investments). In addition to sourcing and managing the Company’s Middle Market Senior Loans, the Churchill Financial Investment Team will continue to source investments for Churchill Financial in its capacity as the collateral manager for Churchill Cayman until the end of its reinvestment period on July 10, 2014.

We believe our Adviser can leverage Carlyle’s relationships with financial sponsors, senior lenders, financial institutions, hedge funds, mutual funds, placement agents and financial advisory firms to source attractive risk-adjusted return investment opportunities. In addition, we believe investment professionals that are part of the GMS platform have extensive private equity and debt capital markets experience, including negotiating, structuring and investing in first lien senior secured loans, second lien loans, high yield bonds, mezzanine debt, distressed debt and private equity securities, and can assist our Adviser in analyzing, structuring and monitoring its investments. Our Adviser and our Administrator will also have access to certain members of Carlyle’s staff, which as of December 31, 2012, consisted of more than 650 investment professionals and more than 500 administrative professionals who provide accounting, internal audit, finance, legal, compliance, operations, information technology and other administrative services.

Subsequent to our election to be treated as a BDC under the 1940 Act, we expect to close a private offering (the “Private Offering”) of our shares of common stock to investors in reliance on exemptions from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). At each closing of the Private Offering, each investor will make a capital commitment to purchase shares of our common stock pursuant to a subscription agreement entered into with us. Investors will be required to fund drawdowns to purchase shares of our common stock up to the amount of their respective capital commitments on an as-needed basis with a minimum of 10 business days’ prior notice to the investors. We anticipate commencing our loan origination and investment activities contemporaneously with the initial drawdown from investors in the Private Offering (the “Initial Drawdown”). Certain members of our senior management team, Carlyle employees and operating executives, and certain partners and affiliates of Carlyle will commit to purchase at least an aggregate of $40 million of our common stock at the initial closing of the Private Offering (the “Initial Closing”), which is expected to occur shortly after we file our election to be treated as a BDC under the 1940 Act.

In addition, our wholly-owned subsidiary, Carlyle GMS Finance SPV LLC (“Borrower Sub”), has received commitments to enter into a revolving credit facility with various lenders (the “Revolving Credit Facility”). We expect the Revolving Credit Facility will become effective shortly after we have completed the Initial Drawdown. The Revolving Credit Facility is expected to initially provide for secured borrowings up to the lesser of $500 million or the amount of capital commitments we have received, subject to restrictions imposed on borrowings under the 1940 Act and adequate collateral to support such borrowings. We expect the borrowing will be used primarily to fund purchases of Middle Market Senior Loans. We expect the Revolving Credit Facility to provide for a three-year revolving period (with two one-year extension options, subject to Borrower Sub’s and the lenders’ consent) and have a maturity date six years from the date the facility closes (extendable in connection with an extension of the revolving period). Base rate borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility are expected to bear interest initially at LIBOR plus 2.25% per year. Borrower Sub is also expected to be required to pay a commitment fee of between 0.25% and 1.00% per year depending on the usage of the Revolving Credit Facility. The lenders will have a first lien security interest in all of the assets of Borrower Sub.

As part of the Revolving Credit Facility, Borrower Sub will be subject to limitations as to how borrowed funds may be used including, but not limited to, restrictions on geographic concentrations, sector concentrations,

 

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loan size, tenor and investment ratings (or shadow ratings). There are also certain requirements relating to interest coverage and portfolio performance, including limitations on delinquencies and charge offs, violation of which could result in the immediate acceleration of the amounts due under the Revolving Credit Facility. The Revolving Credit Facility will also be subject to a borrowing base that applies different advance rates to assets held by Borrower Sub based generally on the fair market value of such assets. Under certain circumstances, we may be obliged to repurchase loans from Borrower Sub.

We expect the proceeds from the Initial Drawdown and the Revolving Credit Facility will provide us with the necessary seed capital to commence operations. Thereafter, we anticipate raising additional equity capital for investment purposes through additional closings under the Private Offering. We may also undertake an initial public offering of our common stock under the Securities Act if our Board of Directors believes that it is beneficial to our investors and to the extent market conditions become favorable to do so.

We or a wholly-owned subsidiary of ours may also apply for a small business investment company (“SBIC”) license from the Small Business Administration (“SBA”) if we determine that doing so would be beneficial to our stockholders. An SBIC license would allow us greater flexibility in pursuing debt investments in smaller and lower middle market companies and could provide an attractive source of capital through the debt financing provided by the SBA. We can provide no assurance that we will apply for or be successful in obtaining an SBIC license. If we apply for an SBIC license, we may also determine to apply for exemptive relief from the SEC to permit us to exclude the debt that is guaranteed by the SBA from our 200% asset coverage test under the 1940 Act.

About Our Adviser

Our investment activities will be managed by our Investment Adviser, CGMSIM. The principal executive offices of CGMSIM are located at 520 Madison Avenue, 38th Floor, New York, NY 10022, with additional offices in Washington DC, Chicago and Los Angeles. CGMSIM will be responsible for sourcing potential investments, conducting research and due diligence on prospective investments and equity sponsors, analyzing investment opportunities, structuring our investments and monitoring our investments and portfolio companies on an ongoing basis. CGMSIM is a wholly owned subsidiary of Carlyle.

Our Investment Committee includes Michael J. Petrick, Chairman of our Investment Committee, Head of GMS and Chairman of Carlyle GMS Finance, Kenneth J. Kencel, Managing Director of Carlyle and President and Director of Carlyle GMS Finance, George F. Kurteson, Managing Director of Carlyle, Durant D. Schwimmer, Managing Director of Carlyle, Christopher B. Cox, Principal of Carlyle, Linda Pace, Managing Director of Carlyle and Head of U.S. Structured Credit for GMS, and Prabu Davamanirajan, Managing Director of Carlyle and Chief Risk Officer of GMS.

CGMSIM has entered into a personnel agreement with The Carlyle Group Employee Co., L.L.C. (“Carlyle Employee Co.”) pursuant to which Carlyle Employee Co. will provide CGMSIM with access to the investment professionals that will comprise the CGMSIM Investment Team.

CGMSIM and the CGMSIM Investment Team are supported by a team of finance, operations and administrative professionals currently employed by Carlyle Employee Co. and CELF, subsidiaries of Carlyle. The CGMSIM Investment Team will be comprised of the Churchill Financial Investment Team, and designated GMS investment professionals, who will form the exclusive ongoing Carlyle platform for U.S. middle market debt investments. The Churchill Financial Investment Team and designated GMS investment professionals will be responsible for sourcing and managing the Company’s Middle Market Senior Loans portfolios as well as the Company’s middle market Opportunistic Investments comprised of junior capital investments (such as mezzanine, second lien loans and equity co-investments). In addition to sourcing and managing the Company’s Middle Market Senior Loans, the Churchill Financial Investment Team will continue to source investments for Churchill Financial in its capacity as the collateral manager for Churchill Cayman until the end of its reinvestment period on July 10, 2014.

 

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Founded in 2006, Churchill Financial currently serves as the collateral manager for Churchill Cayman, a $1.4 billion middle market CLO, as of December 31, 2012. Churchill Financial is a provider of senior debt financing to middle market companies and, along with its affiliated entities, has invested $3.0 billion in Loan Investments in 297 companies since its inception in February 2006 through December 31, 2012 and served as titled agent (administrative, syndication or documentation agent) on more than $8.5 billion of Loan Investments credit facilities. During this period, Churchill Financial, and its affiliates, completed Loan Investments transactions with over 100 private equity firms. During 2012, Churchill Financial, and its affiliated entities, committed $535 million in Loan Investments in 57 transactions. As of December 31, 2012, Churchill Cayman had a portfolio of approximately $1.1 billion in Loan Investments (including unfunded commitments) in 131 companies.

The Churchill Financial Investment Team is led by Kenneth J. Kencel and currently includes a team of 13 investment professionals with an average of approximately 20 years of middle market investment experience. Prior to our formation, these investment professionals focused exclusively on originating, underwriting, documenting and monitoring Churchill Financial’s, and its affiliated entities’ investments in middle market companies. The Churchill Financial Investment Team and designated GMS investment professionals will source investments through origination professionals that actively call on over 250 private equity firms, senior lenders, and advisory firms focused on the middle market. The Churchill Financial Investment Team and designated GMS investment professionals will also have access to a dedicated team of underwriting, portfolio management, workout, and restructuring professionals.

The Churchill Financial Investment Team historically has focused on investing in middle market companies with experienced management teams, strong business fundamentals and conservative capital structures. A large majority of the companies financed by Churchill Financial, and its affiliated entities, were or are backed by private equity investment firms with significant equity capital investments in support of these companies. Since inception, Churchill Financial has maintained a strong credit orientation, with a disciplined investment process that relied heavily on conservative underwriting and fundamental credit analysis. Churchill Financial has employed a multi-channel sourcing strategy designed to maximize investment opportunities and ensure a high level of investment selectivity — annually reviewing an average of 429 Loan Investments opportunities and investing, along with its affiliated entities, on average, in approximately 10% of them.

About Carlyle

Carlyle is one of the world’s largest and most diversified multi-product global alternative asset management firms. Carlyle and its affiliates advise an array of specialized investment funds and other investment vehicles that invest across a range of industries, geographies, asset classes and investment strategies. Since its founding in Washington, D.C. in 1987, Carlyle has grown to become a leading global alternative asset manager with more than $170 billion in assets under management across 113 funds and 67 fund of funds vehicles as of December 31, 2012. Carlyle has approximately 1,400 employees, including more than 650 investment professionals, in 33 offices across six continents, and serves over 1,500 carry fund investors from 75 countries.

Carlyle’s GMS platform, established in 1999 with its first high yield fund, advises a group of 57 active funds, as of December 31, 2012, that pursue investment opportunities across various types of credit, equities and alternative instruments, and (with regards to certain macroeconomic strategies) currencies, commodities and interest rate products and their derivatives. These funds include:

Carry Funds. The GMS platform advises six carry funds, with an aggregate of approximately $4 billion in assets under management as of December 31, 2012, in three different strategies: distressed and corporate opportunities (including liquid trading portfolios and control investments); corporate mezzanine (providing subordinated capital to middle market companies); and energy mezzanine opportunities (targeting debt investments in energy and power projects and companies).

 

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Hedge Funds. Through its 55% stake in Claren Road Asset Management, the GMS platform advises two long/short credit hedge funds focusing on the global high grade and high yield markets totaling, in the aggregate, more than $7 billion in assets under management as of December 31, 2012. Through its 55% stake in Emerging Sovereign Group, the GMS platform advises seven emerging markets equities and macroeconomic hedge funds with aggregate assets under management of approximately $3 billion as of December 31, 2012. Additionally, through its 55% stake in Vermillion Asset Management, the GMS platform advises three commodities-focused strategy hedge funds with aggregate assets under management of more than $2 billion as of December 31, 2012.

Structured Credit. The GMS platform’s 39 structured credit CLO funds, with aggregate assets under management of approximately $17 billion as of December 31, 2012, invest primarily in performing senior secured bank loans through structured vehicles and other investment products. Subsequent to December 31, 2012, GMS closed on two additional structured credit funds totaling approximately $1.2 billion.

Investment Advisory Agreement

Pursuant to the Investment Advisory Agreement we have entered into with CGMSIM, we will pay CGMSIM a fee for investment advisory and management services consisting of two components — a base management fee and an incentive fee.

Base Management Fee

The base management fee will be calculated and payable quarterly in arrears at an annual rate of 1.50% of our gross assets, including assets acquired through the incurrence of debt and excluding cash and cash-equivalents. CGMSIM will not receive any fees on capital commitments not yet invested. Cash and cash-equivalents include any temporary investments in cash-equivalents, U.S. government securities and other high-quality investment grade debt investments that mature in 12 months or less from the date of investment. Prior to the completion of an initial public offering of our common stock that results in an unaffiliated public market float of at least 15% of the aggregate capital commitments received prior to the date of such initial public offering (a “Qualified IPO”), our Investment Adviser will waive its right to receive one-third (0.50%) of the management fee. The fee waiver will terminate if and when a Qualified IPO has been consummated.

Prior to a Qualified IPO, the base management fee will be calculated based on our average daily gross assets during the most recently completed fiscal quarter, and will be appropriately adjusted for any share issuances. Base management fees for any partial quarter will be pro-rated. Following a Qualified IPO, the base management fee will be calculated based on the average value of our gross assets at the end of the two most recently completed fiscal quarters, except for the first quarter following a Qualified IPO, in which case the base management fee will be calculated based on our gross assets as of the end of such fiscal quarter. In each case the base management fee will be appropriately adjusted for any share issuances or repurchases during such fiscal quarter and the base management fees for any partial month or quarter will be pro-rated.

Incentive Fee

The incentive fee has two parts. The first part is calculated and payable quarterly in arrears based on our pre-incentive fee net investment income for the immediately preceding calendar quarter. The second part will be determined and payable in arrears as of the end of each calendar year (or upon termination of the Investment Advisory Agreement) in an amount equal to 20% of our realized capital gains, if any, on a cumulative basis from inception through the end of each calendar year, computed net of all realized capital losses and unrealized capital depreciation on a cumulative basis, less the aggregate amount of any previously paid capital gain incentive fees.

We will defer payment of any incentive fee otherwise earned by our Investment Adviser if, during the most recent four full calendar quarter period (or, if less, the number of full calendar quarters completed since our Initial Drawdown) ending on or prior to the date such payment is to be made, the sum of (a) the aggregate distributions to our stockholders and (b) the change in net assets (defined as gross assets less indebtedness and

 

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before taking into account any incentive fees payable during the period) is less than 6.0% of our net assets (defined as gross assets less indebtedness) at the beginning of such period, provided, that such percentage will be appropriately prorated during the four full calendar quarters immediately following our Initial Drawdown. These calculations will be adjusted for any share issuances or repurchases. Any deferred incentive fees will be carried over for payment in subsequent calculation periods.

Incentive Fee on Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income

Pre-incentive fee net investment income means interest income, dividend income and any other income (including any other fees (other than fees for providing managerial assistance), such as commitment, origination, structuring, diligence and consulting fees or other fees that we receive from portfolio companies) accrued during the calendar quarter, minus our operating expenses accrued for the quarter (including the base management fee, expenses payable under our administration agreement with CGMSFA (the “Administration Agreement”), and any interest expense or fees on any credit facilities or outstanding debt and dividends paid on any issued and outstanding preferred stock, but excluding the incentive fee).

Pre-incentive fee net investment income does not include, in the case of investments with a deferred interest feature (such as original issue discount, debt instruments with pay-in-kind interest and zero coupon securities), accrued income that we have not yet received in cash. Pre-incentive fee net investment income does not include any realized capital gains, realized capital losses, or unrealized capital appreciation or depreciation.

Prior to any Qualified IPO of our common stock, pre-incentive fee net investment income, expressed as a rate of return on the average daily Hurdle Calculation Value (as defined below) throughout the immediately preceding calendar quarter, will be compared to a “hurdle rate” of 1.50% per quarter (6% annualized). “Hurdle Calculation Value” means, on any given day, the sum of (x) the value of our net assets as of the end of the calendar quarter immediately preceding such day plus (y) the aggregate amount of capital drawn from investors (or reinvested in us pursuant to our dividend reinvestment plan) from the beginning of the current quarter to such day minus (z) the aggregate amount of distributions (including share repurchases) made by us from the beginning of the current quarter to such day (but only to the extent such distributions were not declared and accounted for on our books and records in a previous quarter).

Following a Qualified IPO of our common stock that may occur, pre-incentive fee net investment income, expressed as a rate of return on the value of our net assets at the end of the immediately preceding calendar quarter, will be compared to a “hurdle rate” of 1.50% per quarter (6% annualized).

Our net investment income used to calculate this part of the incentive fee is also included in the amount of our gross assets used to calculate the 1.50% base management fee.

We will pay CGMSIM an incentive fee with respect to our pre-incentive fee net investment income in each calendar quarter as follows:

 

   

no incentive fee based on pre-incentive fee net investment income in any calendar quarter in which our pre-incentive fee net investment income does not exceed the hurdle of 1.50%;

 

   

100% of our pre-incentive fee net investment income with respect to that portion of such pre-incentive fee net investment income, if any, that exceeds the hurdle but is less than 1.875% in any calendar quarter (7.50% annualized). We refer to this portion of our pre-incentive fee net investment income (which exceeds the hurdle but is less than 1.875%) as the “catch-up.” The “catch-up” is meant to provide our Investment Adviser with approximately 20% of our pre-incentive fee net investment income as if a hurdle did not apply if this net investment income exceeds 1.875% in any calendar quarter; and

 

   

20% of the amount of our pre-incentive fee net investment income, if any, that exceeds 1.875% in any calendar quarter (7.50% annualized) will be payable to CGMSIM. This reflects that once the hurdle is reached and the catch-up is achieved, 20% of all pre-incentive fee investment income thereafter is allocated to CGMSIM.

 

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The following is a graphical representation of the calculation of the income-related portion of the incentive fee:

Pre-incentive fee net investment income

 

LOGO

Percentage of pre-incentive fee net investment income allocated to

CGMSIM

These calculations are pro-rated for any period of less than three months and adjusted for any share issuances or repurchases during the relevant quarter. A rise in the general level of interest rates can be expected to lead to higher interest rates applicable to our debt investments. Accordingly, an increase in interest rates would make it easier for us to meet or exceed the incentive fee hurdle rate and may result in a substantial increase of the amount of incentive fees payable to our Investment Adviser with respect to pre-incentive fee net investment income.

Incentive Fee on Capital Gains

The second part of the incentive fee is determined and payable in arrears as of the end of each calendar year (or upon termination of the Investment Advisory Agreement, as of the termination date), and equals 20% of our realized capital gains, if any, on a cumulative basis from inception through the date of determination, computed net of all realized capital losses on a cumulative basis and unrealized capital depreciation, less the aggregate amount of any previously paid capital gain incentive fees, provided that, the incentive fee determined at the end of the first calendar year of operations may be calculated for a period of shorter than twelve calendar months to take into account any realized capital gains computed net of all realized capital losses on a cumulative basis and unrealized capital depreciation.

 

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Examples of Quarterly Incentive Fee Calculation

Example 1: Income Related Portion of Incentive Fee(1):

Alternative 1

Assumptions

Investment income (including interest, dividends, fees, etc.) = 1.25%

Hurdle rate(2) = 1.50%

Management fee(3) = 0.375%

Other expenses (legal, accounting, custodian, transfer agent, etc.)(4) = 0.20%

Pre-incentive fee net investment income

(investment income – (management fee + other expenses)) = 0.675%

Pre-incentive net investment income does not exceed hurdle rate, therefore there is no incentive fee.

Alternative 2

Assumptions

Investment income (including interest, dividends, fees, etc.) = 2.40%

Hurdle rate(2) = 1.50%

Management fee(3) = 0.375%

Other expenses (legal, accounting, custodian, transfer agent, etc.)(4) = 0.20%

Pre-incentive fee net investment income

(investment income – (management fee + other expenses)) = 1.825%

Incentive fee = 20% × pre-incentive fee net investment income, subject to the “catch-up”(5)

= 100% x (1.825%-1.50%)

= 0.325%

Alternative 3

Assumptions

Investment income (including interest, dividends, fees, etc.) = 4.00%

Hurdle rate(2) = 1.50%

Management fee(3) = 0.375%

Other expenses (legal, accounting, custodian, transfer agent, etc.)(4) = 0.20%

Pre-incentive fee net investment income

(investment income – (management fee + other expenses)) = 3.425%

Incentive fee = 20% × pre-incentive fee net investment income, subject to “catch-up”(5)

Incentive fee = 100% × “catch-up” + (20% × (pre-incentive fee net investment income – 1.875%))

Catch-up = 1.875% – 1.50%

= 0.375%

Incentive fee = (100% × 0.375%) + (20% × (3.425% – 1.875%))

= 0.375% + (20% × 1.55%)

= 0.375% + 0.31%

= 0.685%

 

(1) The hypothetical amount of pre-incentive fee net investment income shown is expressed, prior to a Qualified IPO of our common stock, as a rate of return on the average daily Hurdle Calculation Value, and subsequently as a rate of return on the value of our total net assets.
(2) Represents 6.00% annualized hurdle rate.
(3) Represents 1.50% annualized management fee.
(4) Excludes organizational and offering expenses.
(5) The “catch-up” provision is intended to provide our Investment Adviser with an incentive fee of approximately 20% on all of our pre-incentive fee net investment income as if a hurdle rate did not apply when our net investment income exceeds 1.875% in any calendar quarter.

 

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Example 2: Capital Gains Portion of Incentive Fee:

Alternative 1

Assumptions

 

   

Year 1: $20 million investment made in Company A (“Investment A”), and $30 million investment made in Company B (“Investment B”).

 

   

Year 2: Investment A sold for $50 million and fair market value (“FMV”) of Investment B determined to be $32 million.

 

   

Year 3: FMV of Investment B determined to be $25 million.

 

   

Year 4: Investment B sold for $31 million.

The capital gains portion of the incentive fee, if any, would be:

 

   

Year 1: None.

 

   

Year 2: $6 million capital gains incentive fee, calculated as follows:

$30 million realized capital gains on sale of Investment A multiplied by 20%.

 

   

Year 3: None, calculated as follows:(6)

$5 million cumulative fee (20% multiplied by $25 million ($30 million cumulative capital gains less $5 million cumulative capital depreciation)) less $6 million (previous capital gains fee paid in Year 2).

 

   

Year 4: $200,000 capital gains incentive fee, calculated as follows:

$6.2 million cumulative fee ($31 million cumulative realized capital gains ($30 million from Investment A and $1 million from Investment B) multiplied by 20%) less $6 million (previous capital gains fee paid in Year 2).

Alternative 2

Assumptions

 

   

Year 1: $20 million investment made in Company A (“Investment A”), $30 million investment made in Company B (“Investment B”) and $25 million investment made in Company C (“Investment C”).

 

   

Year 2: Investment A sold for $50 million, FMV of Investment B determined to be $25 million and FMV of Investment C determined to be $25 million.

 

   

Year 3: FMV of Investment B determined to be $27 million and Investment C sold for $30 million.

 

   

Year 4: FMV of Investment B determined to be $35 million.

 

   

Year 5: Investment B sold for $20 million.

The capital gains portion of the incentive fee, if any, would be:

 

   

Year 1: None.

 

   

Year 2: $5 million capital gains incentive fee, calculated as follows:

20% multiplied by $25 million ($30 million realized capital gains on sale of Investment A less $5 million unrealized capital depreciation on Investment B).

 

(6) If the Investment Advisory Agreement is terminated on a date other than December 31 of any year, we may pay aggregate capital gain incentive fees that are more than the amount of such fees that would have been payable if the Investment Advisory Agreement had been terminated on December 31 of such year. This would occur if the FMV of an investment declined between the time the Investment Advisory Agreement was terminated and December 31.

 

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Year 3: $1.4 million capital gains incentive fee, calculated as follows:

$6.4 million cumulative fee (20% multiplied by $32 million ($35 million cumulative realized capital gains less $3 million unrealized capital depreciation)) less $5 million (previous capital gains fee paid in Year 2).

 

   

Year 4: $600,000 capital gains incentive fee, calculated as follows:

$7 million cumulative fee (20% multiplied by $35 million cumulative realized capital gains) less $6.4 million (previous cumulative capital gains fee paid in Year 2 and Year 3).

 

   

Year 5: None.

$5 million cumulative fee (20% multiplied by $25 million ($35 million cumulative realized capital gains less $10 million realized capital losses)) less $7 million (previous cumulative capital gains fee paid in Years 2, 3 and 4).

CGMSIM Purchases of Stock

We have been informed by CGMSIM that, prior to a Qualified IPO, subject to the receipt of any necessary regulatory approvals, CGMSIM intends to make (or require individual employees or entities in which employees own interests to make) capital commitments to purchase shares of our common stock (the “Pre-IPO Shares”) in an amount equal to approximately 25% of each installment of the net after-tax incentive fee that CGMSIM receives from us. We have also been informed by CGMSIM that, following the completion of a Qualified IPO, CGMSIM intends to purchase shares of our common stock (the “Post-IPO Shares”) in the open market at a purchase price, in the aggregate, equal to approximately 25% of each installment of the net after-tax incentive fee that CGMSIM receives from us, subject to market conditions.

The Pre-IPO Shares and Post-IPO Shares will be subject to securities law and contractual restrictions on transfer. Prior to a Qualified IPO, CGMSIM (or such employees or entities) may not transfer the Pre-IPO Shares except to an affiliate (including an employee) that agrees to be bound by the transfer restrictions. In the case of both Pre-IPO Shares held by CGMSIM (or such employees or entities) upon completion of a Qualified IPO and Post-IPO Shares, contractual restrictions on transfer will expire 180 days after the closing of the final secondary offering provided for our investors pursuant to the Subscription Agreement (the “Release Date”), subject, in the case of Post-IPO Shares, to the additional lock-up periods described in the next paragraph.

After the Release Date, Post-IPO Shares may be transferred after the following additional lock-up periods: (1) with respect to one-third of the Post-IPO Shares purchased in respect of a calendar quarter in which CGMSIM is entitled to receive an Incentive Fee, the period beginning on the last day of such quarter (the “Incentive Fee Date”) and ending on the first anniversary of such Incentive Fee Date, (2) with respect to one-third of such post-IPO Shares, the period beginning on the Incentive Fee Date and ending on the second anniversary of such Incentive Fee Date, and (3) with respect to one-third of such Post-IPO Shares, the period beginning on the Incentive Fee Date and ending on the third anniversary of such Incentive Fee Date. In addition, Post-IPO Shares, like Pre-IPO Shares, may be transferred by CGMSIM to an affiliate (including an employee) that agrees to be bound by the transfer restrictions. If the Investment Advisory Agreement is terminated at any time, the contractual restrictions will terminate. We will grant CGMSIM (or such employees or entities) demand and “piggyback” registration rights that will be available to it after a Qualified IPO.

Our Administrator

CGMSFA, a Delaware limited liability company, will serve as our Administrator. The principal executive offices of CGMSFA are located at 520 Madison Avenue, 38th Floor, New York, New York 10022.

 

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Administration Agreement

Pursuant to the Administration Agreement, which we have entered into with CGMSFA, CGMSFA will furnish us with office facilities, equipment and clerical, bookkeeping and record keeping services at such facilities. Under the Administration Agreement, CGMSFA will also perform, or oversee the performance of, our required administrative services, which will include, among other things, providing assistance in accounting, legal, compliance, operations, technology and investor relations, and being responsible for the financial records that we are required to maintain and preparing reports to our stockholders and reports filed with the SEC. In addition, CGMSFA will assist us in determining and publishing our net asset value, overseeing the preparation and filing of our tax returns and the printing and dissemination of reports to our stockholders, and generally overseeing the payment of our expenses and the performance of administrative and professional services rendered to us by others.

Payments under the Administration Agreement will be equal to an amount that reimburses CGMSFA for its costs and expenses and our allocable portion of overhead incurred by CGMSFA in performing its obligations under the Administration Agreement, including our allocable portion of the compensation paid to or compensatory distributions received by our officers (including our Chief Compliance Officer and Chief Financial Officer) and their respective staff who provide services to us, operations staff who provide services to us, and any internal audit staff, to the extent internal audit performs a role in our Sarbanes-Oxley internal control assessment. The Administration Agreement may be terminated by either party without penalty upon 60 days’ written notice to the other party.

The Administration Agreement provides that, absent willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence in the performance of its duties or by reason of the reckless disregard of its duties and obligations, CGMSFA and its officers, managers, partners, agents, employees, controlling persons, members and any other person or entity affiliated with it will be entitled to indemnification from us for any damages, liabilities, costs and expenses (including reasonable attorneys’ fees and amounts reasonably paid in settlement) arising from the rendering of CGMSFA’s services under the Administration Agreement or otherwise as administrator for Carlyle GMS Finance.

CGMSFA has entered into a sub-administration agreement with Carlyle Employee Co. (the “Carlyle Sub-Administration Agreement”) pursuant to which Carlyle Employee Co. has agreed to provide CGMSFA with access to certain legal, operations, financial, compliance, accounting, internal audit (to the extent internal audit performs a role in our Sarbanes-Oxley internal control assessment), clerical and administrative personnel that presently support the CGMSIM Investment Team. Pursuant to the Carlyle Sub-Administration Agreement, CGMSFA has agreed to reimburse Carlyle Employee Co. for its allocable portion of the compensation of any personnel, other than legal department personnel, that Carlyle Employee Co. provides for its use. CGMSFA also has entered into a separate sub-administration agreement with CELF, an affiliate of CGMSIM (the “CELF Sub-Administration Agreement”) pursuant to which CELF has agreed to provide CGMSFA with access to compliance staff, including Matthew Cottrell, our Chief Compliance Officer. Pursuant to the CELF Sub-Administration Agreement, CGMSFA has agreed to reimburse CELF for its allocable portion of the compensatory distributions made and compensation paid to such compliance staff. In addition, CGMSFA, pursuant to a separate sub-administration agreement, has also engaged State Street Bank and Trust Company (“State Street”) to act on behalf of CGMSFA in its performance of certain other administrative services for us (the “State Street Sub-Administration Agreement”). The principal office of State Street is One Lincoln Street, Boston, MA 02111. State Street will also serve as our custodian, transfer agent, distribution paying agent and registrar.

Managerial Assistance

As a BDC, we will offer, and must provide upon request, managerial assistance to our portfolio companies. This assistance could involve, among other things, monitoring the operations of our portfolio companies, participating in board and management meetings, consulting with and advising officers of portfolio companies

 

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and providing other organizational and financial guidance. We may also receive fees for these services. CGMSIM will provide, through the personnel made available to us by Carlyle Employee Co., or arrange for the provision of, such managerial assistance on our behalf to portfolio companies that request this assistance, subject to reimbursement of any fees or expenses incurred on our behalf by CGMSIM in accordance with our Advisory Agreement.

Valuation Procedures

We will conduct the valuation of our assets, pursuant to which our net asset value shall be determined, at all times consistent with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) and the 1940 Act. Our Board of Directors, with the assistance of our Audit Committee, will determine the fair value of our assets on at least a quarterly basis, in accordance with the terms of FASB Accounting Standards Codification Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement and Disclosures (“ASC 820”). Our valuation procedures are set forth in more detail below.

ASC 820 defines fair value as “the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.” Fair value is a market-based measurement, not an entity-specific measurement. For some assets and liabilities, observable market transactions or market information might be available. For other assets and liabilities, observable market transactions and market information might not be available. However, the objective of a fair value measurement in both cases is the same — to estimate the price when an orderly transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability would take place between market participants at the measurement date under current market conditions (that is, an exit price at the measurement date from the perspective of a market participant that holds the asset or owes the liability).

ASC 820 establishes a hierarchal disclosure framework which ranks the observability of inputs used in measuring financial instruments at fair value. The observability of inputs is impacted by a number of factors, including the type of financial instruments and their specific characteristics. Financial instruments with readily available quoted prices, or for which fair value can be measured from quoted prices in active markets, generally will have a higher degree of market price observability and a lesser degree of judgment applied in determining fair value.

The three-level hierarchy for fair value measurement is defined as follows:

Level I — inputs to the valuation methodology are quoted prices available in active markets for identical instruments as of the reporting date. The type of financial instruments included in Level I include unrestricted securities, including equities and derivatives, listed in active markets. We will not adjust the quoted price for these instruments, even in situations where we hold a large position and a sale could reasonably impact the quoted price.

Level II — inputs to the valuation methodology are other than quoted prices in active markets, which are either directly or indirectly observable as of the reporting date. The type of financial instruments in this category includes less liquid and restricted securities listed in active markets, securities traded in other than active markets, government and agency securities, and certain over-the-counter derivatives where the fair value is based on observable inputs.

Level III — inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to overall fair value measurement. The inputs into the determination of fair value require significant management judgment or estimation. Financial instruments that are included in this category include investments in privately held entities, non-investment grade residual interests in securitizations, collateralized loan obligations, and certain over-the-counter derivatives where the fair value is based on unobservable inputs.

In certain cases, the inputs used to measure fair value may fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In such cases, the determination of which category within the fair value hierarchy is appropriate for

 

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any given financial instrument is based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Our assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement requires judgment and considers factors specific to the financial instrument.

Pursuant to the framework set forth above, we will value securities/instruments traded in active markets on the measurement date by multiplying the closing price of such traded securities/instruments by the quantity of shares or amount of the instrument held. We may also obtain quotes with respect to certain of our investments, such as our securities/instruments traded in active markets and our liquid securities/instruments that are not traded in active markets, from pricing services, broker quotes, or counterparty marks. Pricing services aggregate, evaluate and report pricing from a variety of sources including observed trades of identical or similar securities, broker quotes, model-based valuations and internal fundamental analysis and research. When doing so, we will determine whether the quote obtained is sufficient according to GAAP to determine the fair value of the security. If determined adequate, we will use the quote obtained and, if not determined adequate, the conclusion will be documented and alternative pricing sources may be sought and utilized including valuation techniques typically utilized for illiquid securities/instruments.

Securities/instruments that are illiquid or for which the pricing source does not provide a valuation or methodology or provides a valuation or methodology that, in the judgment of the Adviser or our Board of Directors, does not represent fair value, shall each be valued as of the measurement date using all techniques appropriate under the circumstances and for which sufficient data is available. These valuation techniques may vary by investment but include comparable public market valuations, comparable precedent transaction valuations and discounted cash flow analyses. The process generally used to determine the applicable value will be as follows: (i) the value of each portfolio company or investment will be initially reviewed by the investment professionals responsible for such portfolio company or investment and, for non-traded investments (non-traded investments are illiquid securities/instruments), a standardized template designed to approximate fair market value based on observable market inputs, updated credit statistics and unobservable inputs will be used to determine a preliminary value; (ii) preliminary valuation conclusions will be documented and reviewed by a valuation committee comprised of members of our senior management; (iii) our Board of Directors will engage one or more third-party valuation firms to provide positive assurance on portions of the portfolio each quarter (such that each non-traded investment will be reviewed by a third-party valuation firm at least once annually) including a review of management’s preliminary valuation and conclusion on fair value; (iv) our Audit Committee will review the assessments of the Adviser and, where appropriate, the respective third-party valuation firms and provide our Board of Directors with any recommendations with respect to changes to the fair value of each investment in our portfolio; and (v) our Board of Directors will discuss the valuation recommendations of the Audit Committee and determine the fair value of each investment in our portfolio in good faith based on the input of the Adviser and, where applicable, the respective third-party valuation firms.

All factors that might materially impact the value of an investment will be considered, including, but not limited to the assessment of the following factors, as relevant:

 

   

the nature and realizable value of any collateral;

 

   

call features, put features and other relevant terms of debt;

 

   

the portfolio company’s leverage and ability to make payments;

 

   

the portfolio company’s “private letter” credit rating;

 

   

the portfolio company’s actual and expected earnings and discounted cash flow;

 

   

prevailing interest rates and spreads for like securities and expected volatility in future interest rates;

 

   

the markets in which the portfolio company does business and recent economic and/or market events; and

 

   

comparisons to comparable transactions and publicly traded securities.

 

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Investment performance data utilized will be the most recently available financial statements and compliance certificate received from the portfolio companies as of the measurement date which in many cases may reflect a lag in information.

Securities for which market quotations are not readily available or for which a pricing source is not sufficient may include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

   

private placements and restricted securities that do not have an active trading market;

 

   

securities whose trading has been suspended or for which market quotes are no longer available;

 

   

debt securities that have recently gone into default and for which there is no current market;

 

   

securities whose prices are stale; and

 

   

securities affected by significant events.

The Board of Directors will be ultimately responsible for the determination, in good faith, of the fair value of our portfolio investments.

Determination of fair value involves subjective judgments and estimates. Accordingly, the notes to our financial statements will express the uncertainty with respect to the possible effect of such valuations, and any change in such valuations, on our financial statements.

Competition

Our primary competitors in providing financing to middle market companies include public and private funds, other business development companies, commercial and investment banks, commercial finance companies and, to the extent they provide an alternative form of financing, private equity and hedge funds. Many of our potential competitors are substantially larger and have considerably greater financial, technical and marketing resources than we do. For example, some competitors may have a lower cost of funds and access to funding sources that will not be available to us. In addition, some of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments than we do, which could allow them to consider a wider variety of investments and establish more relationships than us. Furthermore, many of our potential competitors are not subject to the regulatory restrictions that the 1940 Act and the Code will impose on us. The competitive pressures we will face may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, as a result of this competition, we may not be able to take advantage of attractive investment opportunities from time to time, and we can offer no assurance that we will be able to identify and make investments that are consistent with our investment objective.

Carlyle and its affiliates sponsor several investment funds, accounts and other similar arrangements with strategies overlapping with our strategy, including, without limitation, Churchill Cayman, Carlyle Energy Mezzanine Opportunities Fund and successor funds, Carlyle Strategic Partners series of funds, and for the remaining uncalled capital of its second fund, the Carlyle Mezzanine Partners series of funds, as well as carry funds, hedge funds, managed accounts and structured credit CLO funds. The terms of certain of these investment funds, accounts or other similar arrangements require Carlyle to allocate investment opportunities to such investment funds in priority to allocations to other vehicles, such as us. For example, during the commitment period for Carlyle Energy Mezzanine Opportunities Fund and successor funds, Carlyle is generally obligated to offer any investment opportunities in mezzanine debt investments in energy companies and projects to that fund. As a result, there will likely be circumstances where investments appropriate for us are instead allocated, in whole or in part, to such other investment funds, accounts or other similar arrangements. Where Carlyle otherwise has discretion to allocate investment opportunities among various funds, accounts and other similar arrangements, it should be noted that Carlyle may determine to allocate such investment opportunities away from us. Apart from the circumstances described above, Carlyle will be presented with investment opportunities that generally fall within our investment objective and other Carlyle investment funds or managed accounts, whether

 

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focused on a debt strategy or otherwise, and in such circumstances Carlyle will allocate such opportunities among us and such other Carlyle funds on a basis that Carlyle determines to be fair and reasonable taking into account the sourcing of the transaction, the nature of the investment focus of each such other Carlyle investment fund, the relative amounts of capital available for investment, the nature and extent of involvement in the transaction on the part of the respective teams of investment professionals, any requirements contained in the partnership agreements of such other Carlyle funds and other considerations deemed relevant by Carlyle in good faith. Consistent with the foregoing, Carlyle expects that other Carlyle investment funds will make investments in the debt of private companies. In addition, Carlyle expects that we will make investments in geographic regions in which other Carlyle investment funds have been or may be specifically organized to invest.

In addition, Carlyle may determine to form future investment vehicles, BDCs or other closed end funds that invest primarily in U.S. middle market debt investments, including Middle Market Senior Loans, sourced and managed by the Churchill Financial Investment Team and designated GMS investment professionals (an “Other Middle Market Vehicle”). If this were to occur, substantially all investment opportunities that would fall within an Other Middle Market Vehicle’s investment objective may also fall within our investment objective. In a more limited number of situations, Churchill Cayman may have overlapping investment opportunities with us prior to the end of Churchill Cayman’s reinvestment period on July 10, 2014. We would generally be required to apply for exemptive relief from the SEC to co-invest in Middle Market Senior Loans with any Other Middle Market Vehicle. Any such exemptive relief, if issued, will be subject to certain terms and conditions and there can be no assurance that such relief will be granted by the SEC. We do not intend to apply for exemptive relief to co-invest with Churchill Cayman. Instead, prior to the end of Churchill Cayman’s reinvestment period on July 10, 2014 and in the absence of the above-mentioned exemptive relief, in the more limited number of situations where such an investment opportunity also meets Churchill Cayman’s investment objective and policy and for which Churchill Cayman also has available funding and investment capacity (an “Overlapping Opportunity”), we and any Other Middle Market Vehicle would alternate investment in Overlapping Opportunities with Churchill Cayman. While Carlyle and CGMSIM will seek to implement this allocation process in a fair and equitable manner under the particular circumstances, there can be no assurance that it will result in equivalent allocation of or participation in investment opportunities or equivalent performance of investments allocated to us as compared to the other entities.

Carlyle may also from time to time form or have financial or operational interests in the management of one or more hedge funds or similar alternative investment vehicles which may be permitted to allocate a portion of their portfolios to long-dated, illiquid, restricted, or other similar securities and investment opportunities (which may include private equity and mezzanine investments), and whose investment strategies may therefore overlap with ours. It is therefore possible that such hedge funds may consider the same investment opportunities as us. Generally, any private debt investments that may be made by such hedge funds would (i) only be made as part of a broader investment portfolio and be limited to a minority percentage of the hedge fund’s overall portfolio and (ii) generally be expected to be passive minority investments, made on an opportunistic basis. Nevertheless, it cannot be completely ruled out that such hedge funds may on any given occasion compete with us for the same investment opportunity.

We expect to use the expertise of the members of our Investment Committee, including Messrs. Petrick, Kencel, Kurteson, Schwimmer, Cox, Davamanirajan and Ms. Pace, and the CGMSIM Investment Team to assess investment risks and determine appropriate pricing for our investments. In addition, we expect that the relationships developed by the CGMSIM Investment Team will enable us to learn about and compete effectively for, financing opportunities with attractive middle market companies in the industries in which we seek to invest. For additional information concerning the competitive risks we face, see “Item IA. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Investments — We will operate in a highly competitive market for investment opportunities.”

Staffing

We do not currently have any employees. Kenneth J. Kencel, our President, presently serves as a Managing Director of Carlyle. Karen Vejseli, our Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer, presently serves as a Managing

 

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Director of Carlyle, and Ian J. Sandler, our Chief Operating Officer and General Counsel, presently serves as a Managing Director of Carlyle. They are retained by CGMSFA pursuant to the Carlyle Sub-Administration Agreement, and Matthew Cottrell, our Chief Compliance Officer and Secretary, presently serves as a Director of Carlyle and is retained by CGMSFA pursuant to the CELF Sub-Administration Agreement. Each of these professionals will perform their respective functions for us under the terms of our Administration Agreement.

Our day-to-day investment operations will be managed by CGMSIM. Pursuant to its personnel agreement with Carlyle Employee Co., CGMSIM will have access to Messrs. Petrick, Kencel, Kurteson, Schwimmer, Cox, Davamanirajan and Ms. Pace, who comprise our Investment Committee, and a team of additional experienced investment professionals who, collectively, comprise the CGMSIM Investment Team. CGMSIM may hire additional investment professionals to provide services to Carlyle GMS Finance, based upon its needs, subsequent to our Initial Drawdown. See “Item 1. Business — Investment Advisory Agreement.”

In addition, we will reimburse CGMSFA for its costs and expenses and our allocable portion of overhead incurred by it in performing its obligations under the Administration Agreement, including compensation paid to or compensatory distributions received by our officers (including our Chief Compliance Officer and Chief Financial Officer) and any of their respective staff who provide services to us, operations staff who provide services to us, and any internal audit staff, to the extent internal audit performs a role in our Sarbanes-Oxley internal control assessment. See “— Administration Agreement.” CGMSFA will then reimburse Carlyle Employee Co. and CELF for the expenses associated with the compensation paid to, or distributions received by, individuals necessary to perform the administrative obligations under the Administration Agreement. However, each of CGMSFA, Carlyle Employee Co. and CELF will waive its right to be reimbursed in the event that any such reimbursements would cause any distributions to our stockholders to constitute a return of capital.

The Private Offering

We expect to enter into separate subscription agreements with a limited number of investors providing for the private placement of shares of our common stock pursuant to the Private Offering. Each investor will make a capital commitment to purchase shares of our common stock pursuant to the subscription agreement. Investors will be required to make capital contributions to purchase shares of our common stock each time we deliver a drawdown notice, which will be issued based on our anticipated investment activities and capital needs and delivered at least 10 business days prior to the required funding date, in an aggregate amount not to exceed each investor’s respective capital commitment. All purchases of our common stock will generally be made pro rata in accordance with remaining capital commitments of all investors, at a per-share price equal to the net asset value per share of our common stock as determined by our Board of Directors (including any committee thereof) as of the end of the most recent calendar quarter prior to the date of the applicable drawdown notice, subject to the limitations of Section 23 under the 1940 Act (which generally prohibits us from issuing common stock at a price below the then-current net asset value, subject to certain exceptions). Upon the earlier to occur of the completion of a Qualified IPO, and the fifth anniversary of the Initial Closing, investors will be released from any further obligation to purchase additional shares of common stock, subject to certain exceptions contained in the subscription agreement. Prior to a Qualified IPO, no investor who participated in the Private Offering will be permitted to sell, assign, transfer or otherwise dispose of its shares or capital commitment unless we provide our prior written consent and the transfer is otherwise made in accordance with applicable law. Certain members of Carlyle GMS Finance’s senior management team, Carlyle employees and operating executives, and certain partners and affiliates of Carlyle will commit to purchase at least an aggregate of $40 million of our common stock at the Initial Closing of the Private Offering, which is expected to occur shortly after we file our election to be regulated as a BDC under the 1940 Act.

While we expect each subscription agreement to reflect the terms and conditions summarized in the preceding paragraph, we reserve the right to enter into subscription agreements that contain terms and conditions not found in the subscription agreements entered into with other investors, subject to applicable law.

 

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Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

The following discussion is a general summary of the material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to us and to an investment in shares of our common stock. This summary does not purport to be a complete description of the income tax considerations applicable to such an investment. For example, we have not described tax consequences that may be relevant to certain types of holders subject to special treatment under U.S. federal income tax laws, including stockholders subject to the alternative minimum tax, tax-exempt organizations, insurance companies, dealers in securities, a trader in securities that elects to use a market-to-market method of accounting for its securities holdings, pension plans and trusts, financial institutions, U.S. persons with a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar, “controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and persons that will hold common stock as a position in a “straddle,” “hedge,” or as part of a “constructive sale” for federal income tax purposes. This summary assumes that investors hold our common stock as capital assets (within the meaning of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (the “Code”)). The discussion is based upon the Code, its legislative history, existing and proposed regulations, and published rulings and court decisions all as currently in effect. We have not sought and will not seek any ruling from the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) regarding the Private Offering. This summary does not discuss any aspects of U.S. estate or gift tax or foreign, state or local tax. It does not discuss the special treatment under U.S. federal income tax laws that could result if we invested in tax-exempt securities or certain other investment assets.

For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. stockholder” generally is a beneficial owner of shares of our common stock who is for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

   

A citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

A domestic corporation;

 

   

A trust if a U.S. court can exercise primary supervision over its administration and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all of the substantial decisions of the trust; or

 

   

An estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source.

For purposes of this discussion, a “Non-U.S. stockholder” generally is a beneficial owner of shares of our common stock who is not a U.S. stockholder.

If a partnership (including an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holds shares of our common stock, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will generally depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. A prospective stockholder that is a partner of a partnership holding shares of our common stock should consult its tax advisors with respect to the partnership’s purchase, ownership and disposition of shares of our common stock.

Tax matters are very complicated and the tax consequences to an investor of an investment in shares of our common stock will depend on the facts of its particular situation. We encourage investors to consult their tax advisors regarding the specific consequences of such an investment, including tax reporting requirements, the applicability of U.S. federal, state, local and foreign tax laws, eligibility for the benefits of any applicable tax treaty and the effect of any possible changes in the tax laws.

Election to be Taxed as a RIC

We intend to elect to be treated as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. As a RIC, we generally will not have to pay corporate-level U.S. federal income taxes on any income that we distribute to our stockholders as dividends. To qualify as a RIC, we must, among other things, meet certain source-of-income and asset diversification requirements (as described below). In addition, we must distribute to our stockholders, for each taxable year, at least 90% of our “investment company taxable income,” which is generally our net ordinary taxable income plus the excess of realized net short-term capital gains over realized net long-term capital losses (the “Annual Distribution Requirement”). The following discussion assumes that we qualify as a RIC and have satisfied the Annual Distribution Requirement.

 

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Taxation as a Regulated Investment Company

If we:

 

   

qualify as a RIC; and

 

   

satisfy the Annual Distribution Requirement,

then we will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the portion of our net taxable income we distribute (or are deemed to distribute) to stockholders. We will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate rates on any income or capital gains not distributed (or deemed distributed) to our stockholders.

If we fail to distribute in a timely manner an amount at least equal to the sum of (1) 98% of our ordinary income for the calendar year, (2) 98.2% of our capital gain net income (both long-term and short-term) for the one-year period ending October 31 in that calendar year and (3) any income realized, but not distributed, in the preceding year (the “Excise Tax Avoidance Requirement”), we will be liable for a 4% excise tax on the portion of the undistributed amounts of such income that are less than the required distributions. For this purpose, however, any ordinary income or capital gain net income retained by us that is subject to corporate income tax for the tax year ending in that calendar year will be considered to have been distributed by year end (or earlier if estimated taxes are paid). We currently intend to make sufficient distributions each taxable year to satisfy the Excise Tax Avoidance Requirement.

In order to qualify as a RIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we must, among other things:

 

   

continue to qualify as a BDC under the 1940 Act at all times during each taxable year;

 

   

derive in each taxable year at least 90% of our gross income from dividends, interest, payments with respect to loans of certain securities, gains from the sale of stock or other securities or foreign currencies, net income from certain “qualified publicly traded partnerships,” or other income derived with respect to our business of investing in such stock or securities or foreign currencies (the “90% Income Test”); and

 

   

diversify our holdings so that at the end of each quarter of the taxable year:

 

   

at least 50% of the value of our assets consists of cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities, securities of other RICs, and other securities if such other securities of any one issuer do not represent more than 5% of the value of our assets or more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of the issuer; and

 

   

no more than 25% of the value of our assets is invested in the securities, other than U.S. government securities or securities of other RICs, of one issuer, or two or more issuers that are controlled, as determined under applicable Code rules, by us and that are engaged in the same or similar or related trades or businesses, or of certain “qualified publicly traded partnerships” (the “Diversification Tests”).

We intend to make distributions in additional shares of our common stock, unless a stockholder elects to receive distributions in cash. If too many stockholders elect to receive cash, each stockholder electing to receive cash will receive a pro rata amount of cash (with the balance of the distribution paid in stock). In no event will any stockholder electing to receive cash receive less than 10% of his or her entire distribution in cash. For U.S. federal income tax purposes, the amount of a dividend paid in stock will be equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of stock.

Stockholders receiving dividends in shares of our common stock will be required to include the full amount of the dividend (including the portion payable in stock) as ordinary income (or, in certain circumstances, long-term capital gain) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for federal income tax purposes. As a result, stockholders may be required to pay income taxes with respect to such dividends in excess of the cash dividends received. If a U.S. stockholder sells the common stock that it receives as a dividend in

 

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order to pay this tax, the sales proceeds may be less than the amount included in income with respect to the dividend, depending on the market price of our common stock at the time of the sale. Furthermore, with respect to Non-U.S. stockholders, we may be required to withhold U.S. tax with respect to such dividends, including in respect of all or a portion of such dividend that is payable in common stock. In addition, if a significant number of our stockholders were to determine to sell shares of our common stock in order to pay taxes owed on dividends, it may put downward pressure on the trading price (if any) of our common stock. It is unclear whether and to what extent we will be able to pay taxable dividends of the type described in this paragraph. We may make investments that produce income that is not matched by a corresponding cash receipt by us. Any such income would be treated as income earned by us and therefore would be subject to the distribution requirements of the Code. Such investments may require us to borrow money or dispose of other securities in order to comply with those requirements. However, under the 1940 Act (and possibly certain debt covenants), we are not permitted to make distributions to our stockholders while our debt obligations and other senior securities are outstanding unless certain “asset coverage” tests are met. See “Item 1. Business — Regulation as a Business Development Company — Senior Securities.

Moreover, our ability to dispose of assets to meet our distribution requirements may be limited by (1) the illiquid nature of our portfolio and/or (2) other requirements relating to our qualification as a RIC, including the Diversification Tests. If we dispose of assets in order to meet the Annual Distribution Requirement or the Excise Tax Avoidance Requirement, we may make such dispositions at times that, from an investment standpoint, are not advantageous. If we are prohibited from making distributions or are unable to raise additional debt or equity capital or sell assets to make distributions, we may not be able to make sufficient distributions to satisfy the Annual Distribution Requirement, and therefore would not be able to maintain our qualification as a RIC. Additionally, we may make investments that result in the recognition of ordinary income rather than capital gain, or that prevent us from accruing a long-term holding period. These investments may prevent us from making capital gain distributions as described below. We intend to monitor our transactions, make the appropriate tax elections and make the appropriate entries in our books and records when we make any such investments in order to mitigate the effect of these rules.

A RIC is limited in its ability to deduct expenses in excess of its “investment company taxable income” (which is, generally, ordinary income plus net realized short-term capital gains in excess of net realized long-term capital losses). If our expenses in a given year exceed gross taxable income, we would have a net operating loss for that year. However, a RIC is not permitted to carry forward net operating losses to subsequent years. In addition, expenses can be used only to offset investment company taxable income, not net capital gain. Due to these limits on the deductibility of expenses, we may for U.S. federal income tax purposes have aggregate taxable income for several years that we distribute and that is taxable to our stockholders even if such income is greater than the aggregate net income we actually earned during those years. Such distributions may be made from our cash assets or by liquidation of investments, if necessary. We may realize gains or losses from such liquidations. In the event we realize net capital gains from such transactions, a holder may receive a larger capital gain distribution than the holder would have received in the absence of such transactions.

Taxation of U.S. Stockholders

Distributions by us generally are taxable to U.S. stockholders as ordinary income or capital gains. Distributions of our “investment company taxable income” (which is, generally, our ordinary income plus realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses) will be taxable as ordinary income to U.S. stockholders to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, whether paid in cash or reinvested in additional common stock. To the extent such distributions we pay to non-corporate stockholders (including individuals) are attributable to dividends from U.S. corporations and certain qualified foreign corporations, such distributions (“Qualifying Dividends”) generally are taxable to U.S. stockholders at the preferential rates applicable to long-term capital gains. However, it is anticipated that distributions paid by us will generally not be attributable to dividends and, therefore, generally will not qualify for the preferential rates applicable to Qualifying Dividends or the dividends received deduction available to corporations under the Code.

 

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Distributions of our net capital gains (which are generally our realized net long-term capital gains in excess of realized net short-term capital losses) that are properly reported by us as “capital gain dividends” will be taxable to a U.S. stockholder as long-term capital gains that are currently taxable at a reduced rate in the case of individuals, trusts or estates, regardless of the U.S. stockholder’s holding period for his, her or its common stock and regardless of whether paid in cash or reinvested in additional common stock. Distributions in excess of our earnings and profits first will reduce a U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in such stockholder’s common stock and, after the adjusted basis is reduced to zero, will constitute capital gains to such U.S. stockholder.

Under our dividend reinvestment plan, our stockholders who do not “opt out” of our dividend reinvestment plan will have their cash dividends and distributions automatically reinvested in additional shares of our common stock, rather than receiving cash dividends and distributions. Any dividends or distributions reinvested under the plan will nevertheless remain taxable to U.S. stockholders. A U.S. stockholder will have an adjusted basis in the additional common stock purchased through the plan equal to the cash that would have been received if the stockholder had received the dividend or distribution in cash, unless we were to issue new shares that are trading at or above net asset value, in which case, the stockholder’s basis in the new shares would generally be equal to their fair market value. The additional shares will have a new holding period commencing on the day following the day on which the shares are credited to the U.S. stockholder’s account.

Although we currently intend to distribute any net long-term capital gains at least annually, we may in the future decide to retain some or all of our net long-term capital gains but designate the retained amount as a “deemed distribution.” In that case, among other consequences, we will pay tax on the retained amount, each U.S. stockholder will be required to include such stockholder’s share of the deemed distribution in income as if it had been distributed to the U.S. stockholder, and the U.S. stockholder will be entitled to claim a credit equal to such stockholder’s allocable share of the tax paid on the deemed distribution by us. The amount of the deemed distribution net of such tax will be added to the U.S. stockholder’s tax basis for its shares of common stock. Since we expect to pay tax on any retained capital gains at our regular corporate tax rate, and since that rate is in excess of the maximum rate currently payable by individuals on long-term capital gains, the amount of tax that individual stockholders will be treated as having paid and for which they will receive a credit will exceed the tax they owe on the retained net capital gain. Such excess generally may be claimed as a credit against the U.S. stockholder’s other U.S. federal income tax obligations or may be refunded to the extent it exceeds a stockholder’s liability for U.S. federal income tax. A stockholder that is not subject to U.S. federal income tax or otherwise required to file a U.S. federal income tax return would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return on the appropriate form in order to claim a refund for the taxes we paid. In order to utilize the deemed distribution approach, we must provide written notice to our stockholders prior to the expiration of 60 days after the close of the relevant taxable year. We cannot treat any of our investment company taxable income as a “deemed distribution.”

For purposes of determining (1) whether the Annual Distribution Requirement is satisfied for any year and (2) the amount of capital gain dividends paid for that year, we may, under certain circumstances, elect to treat a dividend that is paid during the following taxable year as if it had been paid during the taxable year in question. If we make such an election, the U.S. stockholder will still be treated as receiving the dividend in the taxable year in which the distribution is made. However, any dividend declared by us in October, November or December of any calendar year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date in such a month and actually paid during January of the following year, will be treated as if it had been received by our U.S. stockholders on December 31 of the year in which the dividend was declared.

If an investor purchases shares of our common stock shortly before the record date of a distribution, the price of the shares will include the value of the distribution and the investor will be subject to tax on the distribution even though economically it may represent a return of his, her or its investment.

A stockholder generally will recognize taxable gain or loss if the stockholder sells or otherwise disposes of his, her or its shares of our common stock. The amount of gain or loss will be measured by the difference between such stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in the common stock sold and the amount of the proceeds received

 

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in exchange. Any gain arising from such sale or disposition generally will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the stockholder has held his, her or its shares for more than one year. Otherwise, it will be classified as short-term capital gain or loss. However, any capital loss arising from the sale or disposition of shares of our common stock held for six months or less will be treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of the amount of capital gain dividends received, or undistributed capital gain deemed received, with respect to such shares. In addition, all or a portion of any loss recognized upon a disposition of shares of our common stock may be disallowed if other shares of our common stock are purchased (whether through reinvestment of distributions or otherwise) within 30 days before or after the disposition. In such a case, the basis of the common stock acquired will be increased to reflect the disallowed loss.

In general, individual and other non-corporate U.S. stockholders currently are subject to a maximum federal income tax rate of 20% on their net capital gain (i.e., the excess of realized net long-term capital gains over realized net short-term capital losses), including any long-term capital gain derived from an investment in our shares, and a maximum tax rate of 23.8% on their net taxable gain after taking into account the Medicare tax, discussed below. Such rate is lower than the maximum rate on ordinary income currently payable by individuals. Corporate U.S. stockholders currently are subject to U.S. federal income tax on net capital gain at the maximum 35% rate also applied to ordinary income. Non-corporate stockholders with net capital losses for a year (i.e., capital losses in excess of capital gains) generally may currently deduct up to $3,000 of such losses against their ordinary income each year; any net capital losses of a non-corporate stockholder in excess of $3,000 generally may be carried forward and used in subsequent years as provided in the Code. Corporate stockholders generally may not deduct any net capital losses for a year, but may carry back such losses for three years or carry forward such losses for five years.

For any period that we are not considered to be a “publicly offered” RIC, a non-corporate stockholder’s pro rata portion of our affected expenses, including our management fees, will be treated as an additional dividend to the stockholder and will be deductible by such stockholder only to the extent permitted under the limitations described below. For noncorporate stockholders, including individuals, trusts, and estates, significant limitations generally apply to the deductibility of certain expenses of a nonpublicly offered RIC, including advisory fees. In particular, these expenses, referred to as miscellaneous itemized deductions, are deductible only to individuals to the extent they exceed 2% of such a stockholder’s adjusted gross income, and are not deductible for alternative minimum tax purposes. A publicly offered RIC is a RIC whose shares are either (i) continuously offered pursuant to a public offering, (ii) regularly traded on an established securities market or (iii) held by at least 500 persons at all times during the taxable year. We anticipate that we will not qualify as a publicly offered RIC immediately after the Private Offering, but we may qualify as a publicly offered RIC for future taxable years.

We will send to each of our U.S. stockholders, as promptly as possible after the end of each calendar year, a notice detailing, on a per share and per distribution basis, the amounts includible in such U.S. stockholder’s taxable income for such year as ordinary income and as long-term capital gain. In addition, the U.S. federal tax status of each year’s distributions generally will be reported to the IRS (including the amount of dividends, if any, eligible for the preferential rates applicable to long-term capital gains). Dividends paid by us generally will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction or the preferential tax rate applicable to Qualifying Dividends because our income generally will not consist of dividends. Distributions may also be subject to additional state, local and foreign taxes depending on a U.S. stockholder’s particular situation.

We may be required to withhold federal income tax (“backup withholding”) from all taxable distributions to any U.S. stockholder (other than a stockholder that otherwise qualifies for an exemption) (1) who fails to furnish us with a correct taxpayer identification number or a certificate that such stockholder is exempt from backup withholding or (2) with respect to whom the IRS notifies us that such stockholder has failed to properly report certain interest and dividend income to the IRS and to respond to notices to that effect. An individual’s taxpayer identification number generally is his or her social security number. Backup withholding is not an additional tax, and any amount withheld under backup withholding may be refunded or credited against the U.S. stockholder’s federal income tax liability, provided that proper information is provided to the IRS.

 

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If a U.S. stockholder recognizes a loss with respect to common stock of the Company of $2 million or more for an individual stockholder or $10 million or more for a corporate stockholder, the stockholder generally must file with the IRS a disclosure statement on Form 8886. Direct stockholders of portfolio securities are in many cases exempted from this reporting requirement, but under current guidance, stockholders of a RIC are not exempted. The fact that a loss is reportable under these regulations does not affect the legal determination of whether the taxpayer’s treatment of the loss is proper. U.S. stockholders should consult their tax advisors to determine the applicability of these regulations in light of their specific circumstances.

For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012, a U.S. stockholder that is an individual or estate, or a trust that does not fall into a special class of trusts that is exempt from such tax, will be subject to a 3.8% tax on the lesser of (1) the U.S. stockholder’s “net investment income” for the relevant taxable year and (2) the excess of the U.S. stockholder’s modified gross income for the taxable year over a certain threshold (which in the case of individuals will be between $125,000 and $250,000, depending on the individual’s circumstances). A U.S. stockholder’s net investment income will generally include its gross dividend income and its net gains from the disposition of shares, unless such dividends or net gains are derived in the ordinary course of the conduct of a trade or business (other than a trade or business that consists of certain passive or trading activities). U.S. stockholders that are individuals, estates or trusts are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the applicability of the Medicare tax to their income and gains in respect of their investment in shares of the Company’s common stock.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders

Whether an investment in the shares is appropriate for a Non-U.S. stockholder will depend upon that person’s particular circumstances. An investment in the shares may have adverse tax consequences as compared to a direct investment in the assets in which we will invest. Non-U.S. stockholders should consult their tax advisors before investing in our common stock.

Distributions of our “investment company taxable income” to Non-U.S. stockholders (including interest income and realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized long-term capital losses, which generally would be free of withholding if paid to Non-U.S. stockholders directly) will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal tax at a 30% rate (or lower rate provided by an applicable treaty) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits unless the distributions are effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the non-U.S. stockholder. If the distributions are effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the Non-U.S. stockholder, and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, attributable to a permanent establishment in the United States, the distributions will be subject to federal income tax at the rates applicable to U.S. stockholders, and we will not be required to withhold U.S. federal tax if the Non-U.S. stockholder complies with applicable certification and disclosure requirements. Special certification requirements apply to a Non-U.S. stockholder that is a foreign partnership or a foreign trust, and such entities are urged to consult their tax advisors.

For taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014, properly designated dividends received by a Non-U.S. stockholder are generally exempt from U.S. federal withholding tax when they (1) are paid in respect of our “qualified net interest income” (generally, our U.S.-source interest income, other than certain contingent interest and interest from obligations of a corporation or partnership in which we are at least a 10% stockholder, reduced by expenses that are allocable to such income), or (2) are paid in connection with our “qualified short-term capital gains” (generally, the excess of our net short-term capital gain over our long-term capital loss for such taxable year). However, depending on the circumstances, we may designate all, some or none of our potentially eligible dividends as such qualified net interest income or as qualified short-term capital gains, and/or treat such dividends, in whole or in part, as ineligible for this exemption from withholding. In order to qualify for this exemption from withholding, a Non-U.S. stockholder must comply with applicable certification requirements relating to its non-U.S. status (including, in general, furnishing an IRS Form W-8BEN or an acceptable substitute or successor form). In the case of shares held through an intermediary, the intermediary may withhold even if we designate the payment as qualified net interest income or qualified short-term capital gain. Non-U.S.

 

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stockholders should contact their intermediaries with respect to the application of these rules to their accounts. Further legislation would be required to make the exemption available in years beyond 2013. There can be no assurance that Congress will extend the pass-through rules for periods after December 31, 2013, or that any such extension will apply to dividends that we distribute after that date. A failure to extend the exemption for interest-related dividends would not affect the treatment of non-U.S. stockholders that qualify for an exemption from U.S. withholding tax on dividends by reason of their special status (for example, foreign government-related entities and certain pension funds resident in favorable treaty jurisdictions).

Actual or deemed distributions of our net capital gains to a stockholder that is a Non-U.S. stockholder, and gains realized by a Non-U.S. stockholder upon the sale or redemption of our common stock, will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless the distributions or gains, as the case may be, are effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the Non-U.S. stockholder (and, if an income tax treaty applies, are attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the Non-U.S. stockholder in the United States,) or, in the case of an individual, the Non-U.S. stockholder was present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met.

If we distribute our net capital gains in the form of deemed rather than actual distributions, a stockholder that is a Non-U.S. stockholder will be entitled to a U.S. federal income tax credit or tax refund equal to the stockholder’s allocable share of the corporate-level tax we pay on the capital gains deemed to have been distributed; however, in order to obtain the refund, the Non-U.S. stockholder must obtain a U.S. taxpayer identification number and file a U.S. federal income tax return even if the Non-U.S. stockholder would not otherwise be required to obtain a U.S. taxpayer identification number or file a U.S. federal income tax return.

For a corporate Non-U.S. stockholder, distributions (both actual and deemed), and gains realized upon the sale or redemption of our common stock that are effectively connected to a U.S. trade or business may, under certain circumstances, be subject to an additional “branch profits tax” at a 30% rate (or at a lower rate if provided for by an applicable treaty).

Under our dividend reinvestment plan, our stockholders who do not “opt out” of our dividend reinvestment plan will have their cash distributions automatically reinvested in additional shares of our common stock, rather than receiving the cash distributions. If a distribution is a distribution of our investment company taxable income, is not properly reported by us as a short-term capital gains dividend or interest-related dividend (as discussed above), and it is not effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the Non-U.S. stockholder (or, if a treaty applies, is not attributable to a permanent establishment), the amount distributed (to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) would be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax at a 30% rate (or lower rate provided by an applicable treaty) and only the net after-tax amount would be reinvested in shares of our common stock. If the distribution is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the Non-U.S. stockholder, generally the full amount of the distribution would be reinvested in the plan and would nevertheless be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the ordinary income rates applicable to U.S. persons. The Non-U.S. stockholder would have an adjusted basis in the additional shares of common stock purchased through the plan equal to the cash that would have been received if the stockholder had received the distribution in cash, unless we issue new shares that are trading at or above net asset value, in which case, the stockholder’s basis in the new shares would generally be equal to their fair market value. The additional shares would have a new holding period commencing on the day following the day on which the shares are credited to the Non-U.S. stockholder’s account.

A Non-U.S. stockholder who is a non-resident alien individual may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding of U.S. federal income tax on dividends unless the Non-U.S. stockholder provides us or the dividend paying agent with an IRS Form W-8BEN or an acceptable substitute form or otherwise meets documentary evidence requirements for establishing that it is a non-U.S. stockholder or otherwise establishes an exemption from backup withholding.

 

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Under legislation enacted in March 2010, a 30% withholding tax would be imposed on certain payments that are made after December 31, 2012 to certain foreign financial institutions, investment funds and other non-U.S. persons that fail to comply with information reporting requirements in respect of such Non-U.S. persons’ direct and indirect U.S. stockholders and/or U.S. accountholders. Such payments would include U.S.-source dividends (which include dividends on the common stock of the Company) and the gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of common stock that can produce U.S.-source dividends. However, the Internal Revenue Service has issued proposed regulations providing that such withholding will not apply to payments of dividends made before January 1, 2014 or to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of shares of our common stock made before January 1, 2015.

Non-U.S. persons should consult their own tax advisors with respect to the U.S. federal income tax and withholding tax, and state, local and foreign tax consequences of an investment in the shares.

Regulation as a Business Development Company

General

A BDC is regulated under the 1940 Act. A BDC must be organized in the United States for the purpose of investing in or lending to primarily private companies and making significant managerial assistance available to them. A BDC may use capital provided by public stockholders and from other sources to make long-term, private investments in businesses. A publicly-traded BDC provides stockholders the ability to retain the liquidity of a publicly traded stock while sharing in the possible benefits, if any, of investing in primarily privately owned companies. Until a Qualified IPO, we do not intend to list our common stock on a stock exchange and it will not be publicly traded.

We may not change the nature of our business so as to cease to be, or withdraw our election as, a BDC unless authorized by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities, as required by the 1940 Act. A majority of the outstanding voting securities of a company is defined under the 1940 Act as the lesser of: (a) 67% or more of such company’s voting securities present at a meeting if more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of such company are present or represented by proxy, or (b) more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of such company. We do not anticipate any substantial change in the nature of our business.

As with other companies regulated by the 1940 Act, a BDC must adhere to certain substantive regulatory requirements. A majority of our directors must be persons who are not interested persons, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act. Additionally, we will be required to provide and maintain a bond issued by a reputable fidelity insurance company to protect the BDC. Furthermore, as a BDC, we will be prohibited from protecting any director or officer against any liability to us or our stockholders arising from willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of such person’s office.

As a BDC, we will generally be required to meet an asset coverage ratio, defined under the 1940 Act as the ratio of our total assets (less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by senior securities) to our outstanding senior securities, of at least 200% after each issuance of senior securities. We may also be prohibited under the 1940 Act from knowingly participating in certain transactions with our affiliates without the prior approval of our directors who are not interested persons and, in some cases, prior approval by the SEC. As a BDC, we will generally be limited in our ability to invest in any portfolio company in which our Investment Adviser or any of its affiliates currently has an investment or to make any co-investments with our Investment Adviser or its affiliates without an exemptive order from the SEC, subject to certain exceptions.

We do not intend to acquire securities issued by any investment company that exceed the limits imposed by the 1940 Act. Under these limits, except for registered money market funds, we generally cannot acquire more than 3% of the voting stock of any investment company, invest more than 5% of the value of our total assets in the securities of one investment company or invest more than 10% of the value of our total assets in the securities of investment companies in the aggregate. The portion of our portfolio invested in securities issued by

 

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investment companies ordinarily will subject our stockholders to additional expenses. Our investment portfolio is also subject to diversification requirements by virtue of our intended status to be a RIC for U.S. tax purposes. See “Item 1. Business — Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” for more information.

We will generally not be able to issue and sell our common stock at a price below net asset value per share. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business and Structure — Regulations governing our operation as a BDC affect our ability to, and the way in which we will, raise additional capital.” We may, however, sell our common stock, or warrants, options or rights to acquire our common stock, at a price below the then-current net asset value of our common stock if our Board of Directors determines that such sale is in our best interests and the best interests of our stockholders, and our stockholders approve such sale. In addition, we may generally issue new shares of our common stock at a price below net asset value in rights offerings to existing stockholders, in payment of dividends and in certain other limited circumstances.

We will be periodically examined by the SEC for compliance with the 1940 Act.

As a BDC, we will be subject to certain risks and uncertainties. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business and Structure.

Qualifying Assets

We may invest up to 30% of our portfolio opportunistically in “non-qualifying assets,” which will be driven primarily through opportunities sourced through the GMS platform. However, under the 1940 Act, a BDC may not acquire any asset other than assets of the type listed in Section 55(a) of the 1940 Act, which are referred to as “qualifying assets,” unless, at the time the acquisition is made, qualifying assets represent at least 70% of the BDC’s total assets. The principal categories of qualifying assets relevant to our proposed business are the following:

 

  (1) Securities purchased in transactions not involving any public offering from the issuer of such securities, which issuer (subject to certain limited exceptions) is an eligible portfolio company, or from any person who is, or has been during the preceding 13 months, an affiliated person of an eligible portfolio company, or from any other person, subject to such rules as may be prescribed by the SEC. An eligible portfolio company is defined in the 1940 Act as any issuer which:

 

  (a) is organized under the laws of, and has its principal place of business in, the United States;

 

  (b) is not an investment company (other than a small business investment company wholly owned by the BDC) or a company that would be an investment company but for certain exclusions under the 1940 Act; and

 

  (c) satisfies any of the following:

 

  i. does not have any class of securities that is traded on a national securities exchange;

 

  ii. has a class of securities listed on a national securities exchange, but has an aggregate market value of outstanding voting and non-voting common equity of less than $250 million;

 

  iii. is controlled by a BDC or a group of companies including a BDC and the BDC has an affiliated person who is a director of the eligible portfolio company; or

 

  iv. is a small and solvent company having total assets of not more than $4.0 million and capital and surplus of not less than $2.0 million.

 

  (2) Securities of any eligible portfolio company which we control.

 

  (3) Securities purchased in a private transaction from a U.S. issuer that is not an investment company or from an affiliated person of the issuer, or in transactions incident thereto, if the issuer is in bankruptcy and subject to reorganization or if the issuer, immediately prior to the purchase of its securities, was unable to meet its obligations as they came due without material assistance other than conventional lending or financing arrangements.

 

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  (4) Securities of an eligible portfolio company purchased from any person in a private transaction if there is no ready market for such securities and we already own 60% of the outstanding equity of the eligible portfolio company.

 

  (5) Securities received in exchange for or distributed on or with respect to securities described in (1) through (4) above, or pursuant to the exercise of warrants or rights relating to such securities.

 

  (6) Cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities or high-quality debt securities maturing in one year or less from the time of investment.

Managerial Assistance to Portfolio Companies

A BDC must have been organized under the laws of, and have its principal place of business in, any state or states within the United States and must be operated for the purpose of making investments in the types of securities described in (1), (2) or (3) above. However, in order to count portfolio securities as qualifying assets for the purpose of the 70% test, the BDC must either control the issuer of the securities or must offer to make available to the issuer of the securities (other than small and solvent companies described above) significant managerial assistance; except that, where the BDC purchases such securities in conjunction with one or more other persons acting together, one of the other persons in the group may make available such managerial assistance. Making available managerial assistance means, among other things, any arrangement whereby the BDC, through its directors, officers or employees, offers to provide, and, if accepted, does so provide, significant guidance and counsel concerning the management, operations or business objectives and policies of a portfolio company.

Temporary Investments

Pending investment in other types of “qualifying assets,” as described above, our investments may consist of cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities or high-quality debt securities maturing in one year or less from the time of investment, which we refer to, collectively, as “temporary investments,” so that 70% of our assets are qualifying assets. Typically, we will invest in U.S. Treasury bills or in repurchase agreements, provided that such agreements are fully collateralized by cash or securities issued by the U.S. government or its agencies. A repurchase agreement involves the purchase by an investor, such as us, of a specified security and the simultaneous agreement by the seller to repurchase it at an agreed-upon future date and at a price which is greater than the purchase price by an amount that reflects an agreed-upon interest rate. There is no percentage restriction on the proportion of our assets that may be invested in such repurchase agreements. However, if more than 25% of our gross assets constitute repurchase agreements from a single counterparty, we would not meet the diversification tests in order to qualify as a RIC. Thus, we do not intend to enter into repurchase agreements with a single counterparty in excess of this limit. Our Investment Adviser will monitor the creditworthiness of the counterparties with which we enter into repurchase agreement transactions.

Senior Securities

We are permitted, under specified conditions, to issue multiple classes of indebtedness and one class of stock senior to our common stock if our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, is at least equal to 200% immediately after each such issuance. In addition, while any senior securities remain outstanding, we must make provisions to prohibit any distribution to our stockholders or the repurchase of such securities or shares unless we meet the applicable asset coverage ratios at the time of the distribution or repurchase. We may also borrow amounts up to 5% of the value of our total assets for temporary or emergency purposes without regard to asset coverage.

 

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Code of Ethics

We and CGMSIM have each adopted a code of ethics pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act and Rule 204A-1 under the Advisers Act, respectively, that establishes procedures for personal investments and restricts certain transactions by our personnel. Our codes of ethics generally do not permit investments by our and CGMSIM’s personnel in securities that may be purchased or sold by us.

Compliance Policies and Procedures

We and our Investment Adviser have adopted and implemented written policies and procedures reasonably designed to detect and prevent violation of the federal securities laws and will be required to review these compliance policies and procedures annually for their adequacy and the effectiveness of their implementation and designate a Chief Compliance Officer to be responsible for administering the policies and procedures. Matthew Cottrell currently serves as our Chief Compliance Officer.

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act imposes a wide variety of new regulatory requirements on publicly-held companies and their insiders. Many of these requirements affect us. For example:

 

   

pursuant to Rule 13a-14 of the Exchange Act, our President and Chief Financial Officer must certify the accuracy of the financial statements contained in our periodic reports;

 

   

pursuant to Item 307 of Regulation S-K, our periodic reports must disclose our conclusions about the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures;

 

   

pursuant to Rule 13a-15 of the Exchange Act, our management must prepare an annual report regarding its assessment of our internal control over financial reporting and (once we cease to be an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act or, if later, for the year following our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC) must obtain an audit of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting performed by our independent registered public accounting firm; and

 

   

pursuant to Item 308 of Regulation S-K and Rule 13a-15 of the 1934 Act, our periodic reports must disclose whether there were significant changes in our internal controls over financial reporting or in other factors that could significantly affect these controls subsequent to the date of their evaluation, including any corrective actions with regard to significant deficiencies and material weaknesses.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires us to review our current policies and procedures to determine whether we comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder. We will continue to monitor our compliance with all regulations that are adopted under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and will take actions necessary to ensure that we are in compliance therewith.

Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures

We have delegated our proxy voting responsibility to our Investment Adviser, CGMSIM. The Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures of CGMSIM are set forth below. The guidelines will be reviewed periodically by CGMSIM and our non-interested directors, and, accordingly, are subject to change.

An investment adviser registered under the Advisers Act has a fiduciary duty to act solely in the best interests of its clients. As part of this duty, CGMSIM recognizes that it must vote portfolio securities in a timely manner free of conflicts of interest and in the best interests of its clients.

These policies and procedures for voting proxies are intended to comply with Section 206 of, and Rule 206(4)-6 under, the Advisers Act.

 

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CGMSIM will vote proxies relating to our portfolio securities in what CGMSIM perceives to be the best interest of our stockholders. CGMSIM will review on a case-by-case basis each proposal submitted to a stockholder vote to determine its impact on the portfolio securities held by us. Although CGMSIM will generally vote against proposals that may have a negative impact on our portfolio securities, CGMSIM may vote for such a proposal if there exists compelling long-term reasons to do so.

CGMSIM’s proxy voting decisions will be made by our Investment Committee. To ensure that the vote is not the product of a conflict of interest, CGMSIM will require that: (1) anyone involved in the decision making process disclose to our Investment Committee, and disinterested directors, any potential conflict that he or she is aware of and any contact that he or she has had with any interested party regarding a proxy vote; and (2) employees involved in the decision making process or vote administration are prohibited from revealing how CGMSIM intends to vote on a proposal in order to reduce any attempted influence from interested parties.

Information about how CGMSIM voted proxies can be obtained by making a written request for proxy voting information to: Carlyle GMS Investment Management L.L.C., 520 Madison Avenue, 38th Floor, New York, NY 10022.

Privacy Principles

We are committed to maintaining the privacy of our stockholders and to safeguarding their non-public personal information. The following information is provided to help investors understand what personal information we collect, how we protect that information and why, in certain cases, we may share information with select other parties.

Pursuant to our privacy policy, we will not disclose any non-public personal information concerning any of our stockholders who are individuals unless the disclosure meets certain permitted exceptions under Regulation S-P. We generally will not use or disclose any stockholder information for any purpose other than as required by law.

We may collect non-public information about investors from our subscription agreements or other forms, such as name, address, account number and the types and amounts of investments, and information about transactions with us or our affiliates, such as participation in other investment programs, ownership of certain types of accounts or other account data and activity. We may disclose the information that we collect from our stockholders or former stockholders, as described above, only to our affiliates and service providers and only as allowed by applicable law or regulation. Any party that receives this information will use it only for the services required by us and as allowed by applicable law or regulation, and is not permitted to share or use this information for any other purpose. To protect the non-public personal information of individuals, we permit access only by authorized personnel who need access to that information to provide services to us and our stockholders. In order to guard our stockholders’ non-public personal information, we maintain physical, electronic and procedural safeguards that are designed to comply with applicable law. Non-public personal information that we collect about our stockholders will generally be stored on secured servers located in the United States. An individual stockholder’s right to privacy extends to all forms of contact with us, including telephone, written correspondence and electronic media, such as the Internet.

Pursuant to our privacy policy, we will provide a clear and conspicuous notice to each investor that details our privacy policies and procedures at the time of the investor’s subscription. We will post our privacy policy on our website (http://carlyle.com/our-business/global-market-strategies/carlyle-gms-finance-inc) and promptly update the policy with any amendments.

Reporting Obligations

We will furnish our stockholders with annual reports containing audited financial statements, quarterly reports, and such other periodic reports as we determine to be appropriate or as may be required by law. Upon the effectiveness of our Form 10 under the Exchange Act, we will be required to comply with all periodic reporting, proxy solicitation and other applicable requirements under the Exchange Act.

 

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We intend to make available on our website (http://carlyle.com/our-business/global-market-strategies/carlyle-gms-finance-inc) our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and our current reports on Form 8-K.

Stockholders and the public may also read and copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 450 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20549. The public may also obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains a website (www.sec.gov) that contains such information.

 

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Potential investors should be aware that an investment in the Company involves a high degree of risk. There can be no assurance that the Company’s investment objectives will be achieved or that an investor will receive a return of its capital. In addition, there will be occasions when the Adviser and its affiliates may encounter potential conflicts of interest in connection with the Company. The following considerations, in addition to the considerations set forth elsewhere herein, should be carefully evaluated before making an investment in the Company.

Risks Related to Our Investments

We will operate in a highly competitive market for investment opportunities, and will compete with investment vehicles sponsored or advised by our affiliates.

A number of entities will compete with us to make the types of investments that we will target in leveraged companies. We will compete with other BDCs, public and private funds, commercial and investment banks, commercial finance companies and, to the extent they provide an alternative form of financing, private equity funds. Many of our potential competitors are substantially larger and have considerably greater financial, technical and marketing resources than we do. For example, some competitors may have a lower cost of funds and access to funding sources that will not be available to us. In addition, some of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments than we do, which could allow them to consider a wider variety of investments and establish more relationships than us. Furthermore, many of our potential competitors are not subject to the regulatory restrictions that the 1940 Act and the Code will impose on us. The competitive pressures we will face may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, as a result of this competition, we may not be able to take advantage of attractive investment opportunities from time to time, and we can offer no assurance that we will be able to identify and make investments that are consistent with our investment objective.

We will not seek to compete primarily based on the interest rates we will offer, and we believe that some of our competitors may make loans with interest rates that will be comparable to or lower than the rates we will offer. We may lose investment opportunities if we do not match our competitors’ pricing, terms and structure. However, if we match our competitors’ pricing, terms and structure, we may experience decreased net interest income and increased risk of credit loss.

Carlyle and its affiliates sponsor several investment funds, accounts and other similar arrangements with strategies overlapping with our strategy, including, without limitation, Churchill Cayman, Carlyle Energy Mezzanine Opportunities Fund and successor funds, Carlyle Strategic Partners series of funds, and for the remaining uncalled capital of its second fund, the Carlyle Mezzanine Partners series of funds, as well as carry funds, hedge funds and CLO funds. The terms of certain of these investment funds, accounts or other similar arrangements require Carlyle to allocate investment opportunities to such investment funds in priority to allocations to other vehicles, such as us. As a result, there will likely be circumstances where investments appropriate for us are instead allocated, in whole or in part, to such other investment funds, accounts or other similar arrangements. Where Carlyle otherwise has discretion to allocate investment opportunities among various funds, accounts and other similar arrangements, it should be noted that Carlyle may determine to allocate such investment opportunities away from us. Apart from the circumstances described above, Carlyle will be presented with investment opportunities that generally fall within our investment objective and that of other Carlyle investment funds or managed accounts, whether focused on a debt strategy or otherwise, and in such circumstances Carlyle will allocate such opportunities among us and such other Carlyle funds on a basis that Carlyle determines to be fair and reasonable taking into account the sourcing of the transaction, the nature of the investment focus of each such other Carlyle investment fund, the relative amounts of capital available for investment, the nature and extent of involvement in the transaction on the part of the respective teams of investment professionals, any requirements contained in the partnership agreements of such other Carlyle funds and other considerations deemed relevant by Carlyle in good faith. Consistent with the foregoing, Carlyle expects

 

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that other Carlyle investment funds will make investments in the debt of private companies. In addition, Carlyle expects we will make investments in geographic regions in which other Carlyle investment funds have been or may be specifically organized to invest.

In addition, Carlyle may determine to form Other Middle Market Vehicles. If this were to occur, substantially all investment opportunities that would fall within an Other Middle Market Vehicle’s investment objective may also fall within our investment objective. In a more limited number of situations, Churchill Cayman may have overlapping investment opportunities with us prior to the end of Churchill Cayman’s reinvestment period on July 10, 2014. We would generally be required to apply for exemptive relief from the SEC to co-invest in Middle Market Senior Loans with any Other Middle Market Vehicle. Any such exemptive relief, if issued, will be subject to certain terms and conditions and there can be no assurance that such relief will be granted by the SEC. We do not intend to apply for exemptive relief to co-invest with Churchill Cayman. Instead, prior to the end of Churchill Cayman’s reinvestment period on July 10, 2014 and in the absence of the above-mentioned exemptive relief, in the more limited number of situations where such an investment opportunity represents an Overlapping Opportunity for Churchill Cayman, we and any Other Middle Market Vehicle would alternate investment in Overlapping Opportunities with Churchill Cayman. While Carlyle and CGMSIM will seek to implement this allocation process in a fair and equitable manner under the particular circumstances, there can be no assurance that it will result in equivalent allocation of or participation in investment opportunities or equivalent performance of investments allocated to us as compared to the other entities.

Carlyle may also from time to time form or have a financial or operational interests in the management of one or more hedge funds or similar alternative investment vehicles which may be permitted to allocate a portion of their portfolios to long-dated, illiquid, restricted, or other similar securities and investment opportunities (which may include private equity and mezzanine investments), and whose investment strategies may therefore overlap with ours. It is therefore possible that such hedge funds may consider the same investment opportunities as us. Generally, any private debt investments that may be made by such hedge funds would (i) only be made as part of a broader investment portfolio and be limited to a minority percentage of the hedge fund’s overall portfolio and (ii) generally be expected to be passive minority investments, made on an opportunistic basis. Nevertheless, it cannot be completely ruled out that such hedge funds may on any given occasion compete with us for the same investment opportunity.

We may not replicate the historical success of Carlyle or Churchill Financial or the Churchill Financial Loan Investments, and our ability to enter into transactions with Carlyle and our other affiliates is restricted.

We cannot provide any assurance that we will replicate the historical success of Carlyle or Churchill Financial or the Churchill Financial Loan Investments, and our investment returns could be substantially lower than the returns achieved by other Carlyle managed funds.

Further, we and certain of our controlled affiliates are prohibited under the 1940 Act from knowingly participating in certain transactions with our upstream affiliates, or our Investment Adviser and its affiliates, without the prior approval of our independent directors and, in some cases, the SEC. Any person that owns, directly or indirectly, 5% or more of our outstanding voting securities is our upstream affiliate for purposes of the 1940 Act and we are generally prohibited from buying or selling any security (other than our securities) from or to such affiliate, absent the prior approval of our independent directors. The 1940 Act also prohibits “joint” transactions with an upstream affiliate, or our Adviser or its affiliates, which could include investments in the same portfolio company (whether at the same or different times), without prior approval of our independent directors. In addition, we and certain of our controlled affiliates are prohibited from buying or selling any security from or to, or entering into joint transactions with, our Adviser and its affiliates, or any person who owns more than 25% of our voting securities or is otherwise deemed to control, be controlled by, or be under common control with us, absent the prior approval of the SEC through an exemptive order (other than in certain limited situations pursuant to current regulatory guidance as described below). The analysis of whether a particular transaction constitutes a joint transaction requires a review of the relevant facts and circumstances then existing.

 

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In the absence of exemptive relief, we may invest alongside affiliates or their affiliates in certain circumstances where doing so is consistent with applicable law and current regulatory guidance. For example, we may invest alongside such investors consistent with guidance promulgated by the SEC staff permitting us and an affiliated person to purchase interests in a single class of privately placed securities so long as certain conditions are met, including that we negotiate no term other than price. We may, in certain cases, also make investments in securities owned by affiliates that we acquire from non-affiliates. In the absence of exemptive relief, our ability to participate in any restructuring of such investment or other transaction involving the issuer of such investment may be limited, and as a result, we may realize a loss on such investments that might have been prevented or reduced had we not been restricted in participating in such restructuring or other transaction.

Our investments will be risky and speculative.

We will invest primarily in loans to middle market companies whose debt, if rated, is rated below investment grade. Investments rated below investment grade are generally considered higher risk than investment grade instruments.

First Lien Senior Secured Loans. When we make a senior secured term loan investment in a portfolio company, we generally will take a security interest in substantially all of the available assets of the portfolio company, including the equity interests of its domestic subsidiaries, which we expect to help mitigate the risk that we will not be repaid. However, there is a risk that the collateral securing our loans may decrease in value over time, may be difficult to sell in a timely manner, may be difficult to appraise and may fluctuate in value based upon the success of the business and market conditions, including as a result of the inability of the portfolio company to raise additional capital, and, in some circumstances, our lien could be subordinated to claims of other creditors. In addition, deterioration in a portfolio company’s financial condition and prospects, including its inability to raise additional capital, may be accompanied by deterioration in the value of the collateral for the loan. Consequently, the fact that a loan is secured does not guarantee that we will receive principal and interest payments according to the loan’s terms, or at all, or that we will be able to collect on the loan should we be forced to enforce our remedies.

Unitranche Loans. Unitranche loans provide leverage levels comparable to a combination of first lien and second lien or subordinated loans, and may rank junior to other debt instruments issued by the portfolio company. Unitranche loans generally allow the borrower to make a large lump sum payment of principal at the end of the loan term, and there is a heightened risk of loss if the borrower is unable to pay the lump sum or refinance the amount owed at maturity.

Junior Debt Investments. Our junior debt investments, such as mezzanine loans, generally would be subordinated to senior loans and would either have junior security interests or be unsecured. As such, other creditors may rank senior to us in the event of insolvency. This may result in an above average amount of risk and loss of principal.

Equity Investments. When we invest in senior secured loans or mezzanine loans, we may acquire equity securities as well. In addition, we may invest directly in the equity securities of portfolio companies. Our goal is ultimately to dispose of such equity interests and realize gains upon our disposition of such interests. However, the equity interests we receive may not appreciate in value and, in fact, may decline in value. Accordingly, we may not be able to realize gains from our equity interests, and any gains that we do realize on the disposition of any equity interests may not be sufficient to offset any other losses we experience.

In addition, investing in middle market companies involves a number of significant risks, including:

 

   

these companies may have limited financial resources and may be unable to meet their obligations under their debt securities that we hold, which may be accompanied by a deterioration in the value of any collateral and a reduction in the likelihood of us realizing on any guarantees we may have obtained in connection with our investment;

 

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they typically have shorter operating histories, narrower product lines and smaller market shares than larger businesses, which tend to render them more vulnerable to competitors’ actions and market conditions, as well as general economic downturns;

 

   

they are more likely to depend on the management talents and efforts of a small group of persons; therefore, the death, disability, resignation or termination of one or more of these persons could have a material adverse impact on a portfolio company and, in turn, on us;

 

   

they generally have less predictable operating results, may from time to time be parties to litigation, may be engaged in rapidly changing businesses with products subject to a substantial risk of obsolescence, and may require substantial additional capital to support their operations, finance expansion or maintain their competitive position. In addition, our executive officers, directors and our Investment Adviser may, in the ordinary course of business, be named as defendants in litigation arising from our investments in the portfolio companies; and

 

   

they may have difficulty accessing the capital markets to meet future capital needs, which may limit their ability to grow or to repay their outstanding indebtedness upon maturity.

To the extent we make investments in restructurings and reorganizations they may be subject to greater regulatory and legal risks than other traditional direct investments in portfolio companies.

We may make investments in restructurings that involve, or otherwise invest in the debt securities of, companies that are experiencing or are expected to experience severe financial difficulties. These severe financial difficulties may never be overcome and may cause such companies to become subject to bankruptcy proceedings. As such, these investments could subject us to certain additional potential liabilities that may exceed the value of our original investment therein. For instance, under certain circumstances, payments to us and our distributions to stockholders may be reclaimed if any such payment or distribution is later determined to have been a fraudulent conveyance, preferential payment or similar transaction under applicable bankruptcy and insolvency laws. Furthermore, investments in restructurings may be adversely affected by statutes relating to, among other things, fraudulent conveyances, voidable preferences, lender liability and the court’s discretionary power to disallow, subordinate or disenfranchise particular claims. Under certain circumstances, a lender that has inappropriately exercised control of the management and policies of a debtor may have its claims subordinated or disallowed, or may be found liable for damages suffered by parties as a result of such actions.

The lack of liquidity in our investments may adversely affect our business.

We will generally make investments in private companies. Substantially all of these investments are subject to legal and other restrictions on resale or will otherwise be less liquid than publicly traded securities. The illiquidity of our investments may make it difficult for us to sell such investments if the need arises. In addition, if we are required to liquidate all or a portion of our portfolio quickly, we may realize significantly less than the value at which we have previously recorded our investments. In addition, we may face other restrictions on our ability to liquidate an investment in a portfolio company to the extent that we have material non-public information regarding such portfolio company.

We have not yet identified the portfolio companies we will invest in.

We have not yet identified potential investments for our portfolio that we will acquire with the proceeds of the Private Offering. Our Investment Adviser will select our initial investments prior to our Initial Drawdown and subsequent investments prior to any subsequent drawdown. Our stockholders will have no input with respect to investment decisions. These factors increase the uncertainty, and thus the risk, of investing in our common stock.

 

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Our portfolio may be concentrated in a limited number of portfolio companies and industries, which will subject us to a risk of significant loss if any of these companies defaults on its obligations under any of its debt instruments or if there is a downturn in a particular industry.

Although we do not intend to focus our investments in any specific industries, our portfolio may be concentrated in a limited number of portfolio companies and industries. Beyond the asset diversification requirements associated with our qualification as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code and under the Revolving Credit Facility, we will not have fixed guidelines for diversification, and while we will not target any specific industries, our investments may be concentrated in relatively few industries. As a result, the aggregate returns we will realize may be significantly adversely affected if a small number of investments perform poorly or if we need to write down the value of one or more investments. Additionally, a downturn in any particular industry in which we are invested could also significantly impact the aggregate returns we realize.

To the extent we use structured financing vehicles, we could be subject to heightened risk versus holding direct investments in underlying portfolio companies.

To finance investments, we may securitize certain of our investments, including through the formation of one or more CLOs, while retaining all or most of the exposure to the performance of these investments. This would involve contributing a pool of assets to a special purpose entity, and selling debt interests in such entity on a non-recourse or limited-recourse basis to purchasers. Any interest in any such CLO held by the Company may be considered a “non-qualifying asset” for purposes of Section 55 of the 1940 Act.

If we create a CLO, we will depend on distributions from the CLO’s assets out of its earnings and cash flows to enable us to make distributions to our stockholders. The ability of a CLO to make distributions or pay dividends will be subject to various limitations, including the terms and covenants of the debt it issues. For example, tests (based on interest coverage or other financial ratios or other criteria) may restrict our ability, as holder of a CLO’s equity interests, to receive cash flow from these investments. There is no assurance any such performance tests will be satisfied. Also, a CLO may take actions that delay distributions in order to preserve ratings and to keep the cost of present and future financings lower or the CLO may be obligated to retain cash or other assets to satisfy over-collateralization requirements commonly provided for holders of the CLO’s debt. As a result, there may be a lag, which could be significant, between the repayment or other realization on a loan or other assets in, and the distribution of cash out of, a CLO, or cash flow may be completely restricted for the life of the CLO.

In addition, a decline in the credit quality of loans in a CLO due to poor operating results of the relevant borrower, declines in the value of loan collateral or increases in defaults, among other things, may force a CLO to sell certain assets at a loss, reducing their earnings and, in turn, cash potentially available for distribution to us for distribution to our stockholders.

To the extent that any losses are incurred by the CLO in respect of any collateral, such losses will be borne first by us as owner of equity interests. Finally, any equity interests that we retain in a CLO will not be secured by the assets of the CLO and we will rank behind all creditors of the CLO.

Capital markets have been in a period of disruption and instability. These market conditions have materially and adversely affected debt and equity capital markets in the United States and abroad, which may in the future have a negative impact on our business and operations.

The global capital markets have been in a period of disruption in recent years as evidenced by a lack of liquidity in the debt capital markets, significant write-offs in the financial services sector, the re-pricing of credit risk in the broadly syndicated credit market and the failure of certain major financial institutions. In addition, speculation regarding the inability of Greece and certain other European countries to pay their national debt, the response by Eurozone policy makers to mitigate this sovereign debt crisis and the concerns regarding the stability of the Eurozone currency have resulted in downgrades or downgrade reviews of the debt of Eurozone sovereigns

 

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and financial institutions and created uncertainty in the credit markets. Despite actions of the United States federal government and foreign governments, these events contributed to worsening general economic conditions that materially and adversely impacted the broader financial and credit markets and reduced the availability of debt and equity capital for the market as a whole and financial services firms in particular. These conditions could continue for a prolonged period of time or worsen in the future. While these conditions persist, we and other companies in the financial services sector may have to access, if available, alternative markets for debt and equity capital. Equity capital may be difficult to raise to the extent we complete an initial public offering and commence trading on an exchange because, subject to some limited exceptions which will apply to us, as a BDC we will generally not be able to issue additional shares of our common stock at a price less than net asset value. In addition, our ability to incur indebtedness (including by issuing preferred stock) will be limited by applicable regulations such that our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, must equal at least 200% immediately after each time we incur indebtedness. The debt capital that will be available, if at all, may be at a higher cost and on less favorable terms and conditions in the future. Any inability to raise capital could have a negative effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The illiquidity of our investments may make it difficult for us to sell such investments if required and to value such investments. As a result, we may realize significantly less than the value at which we will have recorded our investments. In addition, significant changes in the capital markets may have a negative effect on the valuations of our investments and on the potential for liquidity events involving our investments. An inability to raise capital, and any required sale of our investments for liquidity purposes, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

The downgrade of the U.S. credit rating or other U.S. credit-related or budget-related concerns could have a significant adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Due to federal budget deficit concerns, S&P downgraded the federal government’s credit rating from AAA to AA+ for the first time in history on August 5, 2011. There may be additional downgrades by S&P or the other two major credit rating agencies, Moody’s and Fitch Ratings. These developments, and the government’s credit concerns in general, including those relating to budget deficit issues or Congress’s failure or potential failure to raise the debt ceiling on a timely basis, could negatively impact both the perception of credit risk associated with our debt portfolio and our ability to access the debt markets on favorable terms. In addition, a decreased credit rating could create broader financial turmoil and uncertainty, which may weigh heavily on our financial performance and the value of our common stock.

Economic recessions or downturns could impair our portfolio companies and harm our operating results.

Many of the portfolio companies in which we make investments may be susceptible to economic slowdowns or recessions and may be unable to repay our loans during these periods. Therefore, our non-performing assets may increase and the value of our portfolio may decrease during these periods as we will be required to record our investments at their current fair value. Adverse economic conditions also may decrease the value of collateral securing some of our loans and the value of our equity investments. Economic slowdowns or recessions could lead to financial losses in our portfolio and a decrease in revenues, net income and assets. Unfavorable economic conditions also could increase our and our portfolio companies’ funding costs, limit our and our portfolio companies’ access to the capital markets or result in a decision by lenders not to extend credit to us or our portfolio companies. These events could prevent us from increasing investments and harm our operating results.

A portfolio company’s failure to satisfy financial or operating covenants imposed by us or other lenders could lead to defaults and, potentially, acceleration of the time when the loans are due and foreclosure on its secured assets, which could trigger cross-defaults under other agreements and jeopardize the portfolio company’s ability to meet its obligations under the debt that we will hold. We may incur additional expenses to the extent necessary to seek recovery upon default or to negotiate new terms with a defaulting portfolio company. In

 

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addition, if one of our portfolio companies were to go bankrupt, depending on the facts and circumstances, including the extent to which we will actually provide significant managerial assistance to that portfolio company, a bankruptcy court might subordinate all or a portion of our claim to that of other creditors.

Leveraged companies may enter into bankruptcy proceedings at higher rates than companies that are not leveraged and we will invest in debt securities of these companies.

Leveraged companies, such as those in which we plan to invest, may be more prone to bankruptcy or similar financial distress. The bankruptcy process has a number of significant inherent risks. Many events in a bankruptcy proceeding are the product of contested matters and adversary proceedings and are beyond the control of the creditors. A bankruptcy filing by an issuer may adversely and permanently affect the issuer. If the proceeding is converted to a liquidation, the value of the issuer may not equal the liquidation value that was believed to exist at the time of the investment. The duration of a bankruptcy proceeding is also difficult to predict, and a creditor’s return on investment can be adversely affected by delays until the plan of reorganization or liquidation ultimately becomes effective. The administrative costs of a bankruptcy proceeding are frequently high and would be paid out of the debtor’s estate prior to any return to creditors. Because the standards for classification of claims under bankruptcy law are vague, our influence with respect to the class of securities or other obligations we own may be lost by increases in the number and amount of claims in the same class or by different classification and treatment. In the early stages of the bankruptcy process, it is often difficult to estimate the extent of, or even to identify, any contingent claims that might be made. In addition, certain claims that have priority by law (for example, claims for taxes) may be substantial.

Declines in the prices of corporate debt securities and illiquidity in the corporate debt markets may adversely affect the fair value of our portfolio investments, reducing our net asset value through increased net unrealized depreciation.

As a BDC, we will be required to account for our investments at market value or, if no market value is ascertainable, at fair value as determined in good faith by or under the direction of our Board of Directors. Decreases in the market values or fair values of our investments will be recorded as unrealized depreciation. The unprecedented declines in prices and liquidity in the corporate debt markets from mid-2007 through early-2010 have resulted in significant net unrealized depreciation in the portfolios of many existing BDCs, reducing their net asset value. Depending on market conditions, we may face similar losses, which could reduce our net asset value and have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Because we generally will not hold controlling equity interests in our portfolio companies, we may not be in a position to exercise control over our portfolio companies or to prevent decisions by management of our portfolio companies that could decrease the value of our investments.

Although we may do so in the future, initially we do not intend to hold controlling equity positions in our portfolio companies. Our non-controlling investments may be acquired through trading activities or through direct purchases of securities from the portfolio company. In addition, we may acquire minority equity interests in large transactions in which our level of control over the equity investment is limited. Accordingly, we may not be able to control decisions relating to a minority equity investment, including decisions relating to the management and operation of the portfolio company and the timing and nature of any exit. As a result, we will be subject to the risk that a portfolio company may make business decisions with which we disagree, and that the management and/or stockholders of a portfolio company may take risks or otherwise act in ways that will be adverse to our interests. Due to the lack of liquidity of the investments that we will typically hold in our portfolio companies, we may not be able to dispose of our investments in the event we disagree with the actions of a portfolio company and may therefore suffer a decrease in the value of our investments. If any of the foregoing were to occur, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flow could suffer as a result.

 

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An investment strategy focused primarily on privately held companies presents certain challenges, including the lack of available information about these companies, a dependence on the talents and efforts of only a few key portfolio company personnel and a greater vulnerability to economic downturns.

We will invest primarily in privately held companies. Generally, little public information exists about these companies, and we will be required to rely on the ability of our Investment Adviser to obtain adequate information to evaluate the potential returns from investing in these companies. The due diligence process that our Investment Adviser will undertake in connection with our investments may not reveal all the facts that may be relevant in connection with such investment. If our Investment Adviser is unable to uncover all material information about these companies, we may not make a fully informed investment decision, and we may lose money on our investments. Also, privately held companies frequently have less diverse product lines and smaller market presence than larger competitors. These factors could adversely affect our investment returns as compared to companies investing primarily in the securities of public companies.

Our portfolio companies may incur debt that ranks equally with, or senior to, some of our investments in such companies.

We will invest primarily in Middle Market Senior Loans issued by our portfolio companies. If we invest in second lien, mezzanine or other instruments, our portfolio companies typically may be permitted to incur other debt that ranks equally with, or senior to, such debt instruments. By their terms, such debt instruments may provide that the holders are entitled to receive payment of interest or principal on or before the dates on which we will be entitled to receive payments in respect of the debt securities in which we will invest. Also, in the event of insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or bankruptcy of a portfolio company, holders of debt instruments ranking senior to our investment in that portfolio company would typically be entitled to receive payment in full before we receive any distribution in respect of our investment. In such cases, after repaying such senior creditors, such portfolio company may not have sufficient remaining assets to use for repaying its obligation to us. In the case of debt ranking equally with debt securities in which we will invest, we would have to share on an equal basis any distributions with other creditors holding such debt in the event of an insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or bankruptcy of the relevant portfolio company.

Our investments in foreign securities may involve significant risks in addition to the risks inherent in U.S. investments.

Our investment strategy contemplates potential investments in debt securities of foreign companies. Investing in foreign companies may expose us to additional risks not typically associated with investing in U.S. companies. These risks include changes in exchange control regulations, political and social instability, expropriation, imposition of foreign taxes, less liquid markets and less available information than is generally the case in the United States, higher transaction costs, less government supervision of exchanges, brokers and issuers, less developed bankruptcy laws, difficulty in enforcing contractual obligations, lack of uniform accounting and auditing standards and greater price volatility.

Although most of our investments are expected to be U.S. dollar-denominated, any investments denominated in a foreign currency will be subject to the risk that the value of a particular currency will change in relation to one or more other currencies. Among the factors that may affect currency values are trade balances, the level of short-term interest rates, differences in relative values of similar assets in different currencies, long-term opportunities for investment and capital appreciation, and political developments. We may employ hedging techniques to minimize these risks, but we can offer no assurance that we will, in fact, hedge currency risk, or that if we do, such strategies will be effective.

We may expose ourselves to risks if we engage in hedging transactions.

If we engage in hedging transactions, we may expose ourselves to risks associated with such transactions. We may utilize instruments such as forward contracts, credit default swaps, currency options and interest rate swaps, caps, collars and floors to seek to hedge against fluctuations in the relative values of our portfolio

 

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positions from changes in currency exchange rates, credit risk premiums, and market interest rates. Hedging against a decline in the values of our portfolio positions does not eliminate the possibility of fluctuations in the values of such positions or prevent losses if the values of such positions decline. However, such hedging can establish other positions designed to gain from those same developments, thereby offsetting the decline in the value of such portfolio positions. Such hedging transactions may also limit the opportunity for gain if the values of the underlying portfolio positions should increase. It may not be possible to hedge against an exchange rate or interest rate fluctuation at an acceptable price that is generally anticipated. Moreover, for a variety of reasons, we may not seek to establish a perfect correlation between such hedging instruments and the portfolio holdings being hedged. Any such imperfect correlation may prevent us from achieving the effect of the intended hedge and expose us to risk of loss. In addition, it may not be possible to hedge fully or perfectly against currency fluctuations affecting the value of securities denominated in non-U.S. currencies because the value of those securities is likely to fluctuate as a result of factors not related to currency fluctuations. We may determine not to hedge against particular risks, including if we determine that available hedging transactions are not available at an appropriate price.

We will be dependent upon our Investment Adviser’s key investment professionals for our future success.

We will depend on the diligence, skill and network of business contacts of the CGMSIM Investment Team and the GMS platform to source appropriate investments for us. We depend on members of the CGMSIM Investment Team to appropriately analyze our investments and our Investment Committee to approve and monitor our portfolio investments. Messrs. Petrick, Kencel, Kurteson, Schwimmer, Cox, Davamanirajan and Ms. Pace, together with the CGMSIM Investment Team, will evaluate, negotiate, structure, close and monitor our investments. Our future success will depend on the continued service of Messrs. Petrick, Kencel, Kurteson, Schwimmer, Cox, Davamanirajan and Ms. Pace and the other investment professionals available to CGMSIM. Neither we nor CGMSIM has employment agreements with these individuals or other key personnel, and we cannot provide any assurance that unforeseen business, medical, personal or other circumstances would not lead any such individual to terminate his or her relationship with us. The loss of Messrs. Petrick, Kencel, Kurteson, Schwimmer, Cox, Davamanirajan or Ms. Pace, or any of the other senior investment professionals to which CGMSIM has access, could have a material adverse effect on our ability to achieve our investment objective as well as on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our contract with CGMSIM is terminable by either party upon 60 days’ notice, and we can offer no assurance that CGMSIM will remain our Investment Adviser.

The principals of CGMSIM are and may in the future become affiliated with entities engaged in business activities similar to those intended to be conducted by us, and may have conflicts of interest in allocating their time. We expect that Messrs. Petrick, Kencel, Kurteson, Schwimmer, Cox, Davamanirajan and Ms. Pace will dedicate a significant portion of their time to our activities; however, they may be engaged in other business activities which could divert their time and attention in the future. In particular, Mr. Petrick will continue to have significant obligations with respect to other funds affiliated with Carlyle as well as his role on Carlyle’s Operating Committee, Ms. Pace will have significant obligations with respect to other structured credit funds managed by Carlyle, Mr. Davamanirajan will have significant obligations in his role as Chief Risk Officer of GMS, and Messrs. Kencel, Kurteson, Schwimmer and Cox will continue to have obligations with respect to Churchill Cayman. In addition, the Churchill Financial Investment Team and designated GMS investment professionals would likely be responsible for sourcing and managing U.S. middle market debt investments for any Other Middle Market Vehicle and would have obligations with respect to investors in any Other Middle Market Vehicle.

Our Investment Adviser may not be able to achieve the same or similar returns as those achieved by its principals while they were employed at prior positions.

Although in the past our Investment Adviser’s principals, including Messrs. Petrick, Kencel, Kurteson, Schwimmer, Cox, Davamanirajan, and Ms. Pace, have held senior positions at a number of investment firms, including Churchill Financial and Carlyle, Mr. Petrick, Mr. Davamanirajan and Ms. Pace have not previously worked with Messrs. Kencel, Kurteson, Schwimmer and Cox and their respective track records and achievements

 

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are not necessarily indicative of future results that will be achieved by our Investment Adviser. In their respective roles at such other firms, our Investment Adviser’s principals were part of a larger investment team, and they were not solely responsible for generating investment ideas, but were ultimately responsible for all investment decisions. In addition, such investment teams arrived at investment decisions by consensus of the investment committee of Messrs. Kencel, Kurteson, Schwimmer and Cox.

Risks Relating to an Investment in Our Securities

There is a risk that our stockholders may not receive distributions or that our distributions may not grow over time.

After our Initial Drawdown, we intend to make distributions on a quarterly basis to our stockholders out of assets legally available for distribution. We cannot provide any assurance that we will achieve investment results that will allow us to make a specified level of cash distributions or year-to-year increases in cash distributions. In addition, due to the asset coverage test applicable to us as a BDC, we may be limited in our ability to make distributions.

Our stockholders may be required to pay federal income taxes in excess of the cash dividends they receive.

We intend to distribute taxable dividends that are payable in cash or shares of our common stock at the election of each stockholder. If too many stockholders elect to receive cash, each stockholder electing to receive cash will receive a pro rata amount of cash (with the balance of the distribution paid in stock). In no event will any stockholder electing to receive cash receive less than 10% of his or her entire distribution in cash. For U.S. federal income tax purposes, the amount of a dividend paid in stock will be equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of stock.

Stockholders receiving dividends in shares of our common stock will be required to include the full amount of the dividend (including the portion payable in stock) as ordinary income (or, in certain circumstances, long-term capital gain) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for federal income tax purposes. As a result, stockholders may be required to pay income taxes with respect to such dividends in excess of the cash dividends received. If a U.S. stockholder sells the common stock that it receives as a dividend in order to pay this tax, the sales proceeds may be less than the amount included in income with respect to the dividend, depending on the market price of our common stock at the time of the sale. Furthermore, with respect to non-U.S. stockholders, we may be required to withhold U.S. tax with respect to such dividends, including in respect of all or a portion of such dividend that is payable in common stock. In addition, if a significant number of our stockholders were to determine to sell shares of our common stock in order to pay taxes owed on dividends, it may put downward pressure on the trading price (if any) of our common stock. It is unclear whether and to what extent we will be able to pay taxable dividends of the type described in this paragraph. See “Item 1. Business — Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.

We are currently in a period of capital markets disruption and recession and do not expect these conditions to improve in the near future; as a result, we may be unable to launch or complete an IPO of our common stock or list our shares on a recognized exchange.

The U.S. capital markets have been experiencing extreme volatility and disruption for several years and we believe that the U.S. economy has not fully emerged from a period of recession. Disruptions in the capital markets have increased the spread between the yields realized on risk-free and higher risk securities, resulting in illiquidity in parts of the capital markets. We believe these conditions may continue for a prolonged period of time or worsen in the future. A prolonged period of market illiquidity may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Unfavorable economic conditions could also increase our portfolio companies’ funding costs, limit their access to the capital markets or result in a decision by lenders not to extend credit to them. These events could limit our investment originations, limit their ability to grow, negatively impact our operating results, and delay or prevent us from launching or completing an IPO of our common stock or list our shares on a recognized exchange.

 

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Risks Relating to Our Business and Structure

We have no operating history.

We were formed in February 2012. As a result of a lack of operating history, we are subject to many of the business risks and uncertainties associated with recently formed businesses, including the risk that we will not achieve our investment objective and that the value of our common stock could decline substantially.

CGMSIM, the CGMSIM Investment Team, Carlyle and our Directors and Executive Officers have no prior experience managing a BDC.

Our Adviser is newly organized and had no operating history. Additionally, our Adviser, the members of the CGMSIM Investment Team, Carlyle and our Directors and Executive Officers have no prior experience managing a BDC, and the investment philosophy and techniques used by our Investment Adviser to manage an SEC-reporting company may differ from the investment philosophy and techniques previously employed by the investment team in identifying and managing past investments. Accordingly, we can offer no assurance that we will replicate the historical performance of other businesses or companies with which the CGMSIM Investment Team has been affiliated, and our investment returns could be substantially lower than the returns achieved by such other companies.

A disruption in the capital markets and the credit markets could negatively affect our business.

As a BDC, we will seek to maintain our ability to raise additional capital for investment purposes. Without sufficient access to the capital markets or credit markets, we may be forced to curtail our business operations or we may not be able to pursue new business opportunities. Disruptive conditions in the financial industry and the impact of new legislation in response to those conditions could restrict our business operations and could adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.

If the fair value of our assets declines substantially, we may fail to maintain the asset coverage ratios imposed upon us by the 1940 Act. Any such failure would affect our ability to issue senior securities, including borrowings, and pay dividends, which could materially impair our business operations. Our liquidity could be impaired further by an inability to access the capital markets. For example, we cannot be certain that we will be able to consummate new borrowing facilities to provide capital for normal operations, including new originations. Reflecting concern about the stability of the financial markets, many lenders and institutional investors have reduced or ceased providing funding to borrowers. This market turmoil and tightening of credit have led to increased market volatility and widespread reduction of business activity generally.

If we are unable to consummate new facilities on commercially reasonable terms, our liquidity will be reduced significantly. If we consummate new facilities but are then unable to repay amounts outstanding under such facilities, and are declared in default or are unable to renew or refinance these facilities, we would not be able to initiate significant originations or to operate our business in the normal course. These situations may arise due to circumstances that we may be unable to control, such as inaccessibility to the credit markets, a severe decline in the value of the U.S. dollar, an economic downturn or an operations problem that affects third parties or us, and could materially damage our business. Moreover, we are unable to predict when economic and market conditions may become more favorable. Even if such conditions improve broadly and significantly over the long term, adverse conditions in particular sectors of the financial markets could adversely impact our business.

Our financial condition and results of operations will depend on our ability to manage future growth effectively.

Our ability to achieve our investment objective and to grow depends on our Investment Adviser’s ability to identify, invest in and monitor companies that meet our investment criteria.

 

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Accomplishing this result on a cost-effective basis is largely a function of our Investment Adviser’s structuring of the investment process, its ability to provide competent, attentive and efficient services to us and its ability to access financing for us on acceptable terms. The CGMSIM Investment Team has substantial responsibilities under the Investment Advisory Agreement, may have substantial responsibilities in connection with any Other Middle Market Vehicle, and may also be called upon to provide managerial assistance to our portfolio companies. In addition, our Investment Adviser’s principals have similar responsibilities with respect to the management of Churchill Cayman. Such demands on their time may distract them or slow our rate of investment. In order for us to grow, CGMSIM will need to retain, train, supervise and manage new investment professionals. However, we can offer no assurance that any such investment professionals will contribute effectively to the work of the Investment Adviser. Any failure to manage our future growth effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may need to raise additional capital to grow because we must distribute most of our income.

We may need additional capital to fund growth in our investments. We expect to issue equity securities in connection with the Private Offering and expect to borrow from financial institutions in the future. A reduction in the availability of new capital could limit our ability to grow. We must distribute at least 90% of our investment company taxable income to our stockholders to maintain our RIC status. As a result, any such cash earnings may not be available to fund investment originations. We expect to borrow from financial institutions and issue additional debt and equity securities. If we fail to obtain funds from such sources or from other sources to fund our investments, it could limit our ability to grow, which may have an adverse effect on the value of our securities. In addition, as a BDC, our ability to borrow or issue preferred stock may be restricted if our total assets are less than 200% of our total borrowings and preferred stock.

Any failure on our part to maintain our status as a BDC or RIC would reduce our operating flexibility, may hinder our achievement of our investment objective, may limit our investment choices and may subject us to greater regulation.

The 1940 Act imposes numerous constraints on the operations of BDCs. For example, BDCs are required to invest at least 70% of their total assets in specified types of “qualifying assets,” primarily in private U.S. companies or thinly-traded U.S. public companies, cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities and other high quality debt investments that mature in one year or less. In addition, subject to certain limited exceptions, an investment in an issuer that has outstanding securities listed on a national exchange may be treated as a qualifying asset only if such issuer has a market capitalization that is less than $250 million at the time of such investment. In addition, as a RIC we will be required to satisfy certain source-of-income, diversification and distribution requirements. These constraints, among others, may hinder our ability to take advantage of attractive investment opportunities and to achieve our investment objective.

Furthermore, any failure to comply with the requirements imposed on BDCs by the 1940 Act could cause the SEC to bring an enforcement action against us and/or expose us to claims of private litigants. In addition, upon approval of a majority of our stockholders, we may elect to withdraw our status as a BDC. If we decide to withdraw our election, or if we otherwise fail to qualify, or maintain our qualification, as a BDC, we may be subject to substantially greater regulation under the 1940 Act as a closed-end investment company. Compliance with such regulations would significantly decrease our operating flexibility, and could significantly increase our costs of doing business.

Regulations governing our operation as a BDC affect our ability to, and the way in which we will, raise additional capital. As a BDC, the necessity of raising additional capital may expose us to risks, including the typical risks associated with leverage.

We may issue debt securities or preferred stock and/or borrow money from banks or other financial institutions, which we refer to collectively as “senior securities,” up to the maximum amount permitted by the 1940 Act. Under the provisions of the 1940 Act, we will be permitted, as a BDC, to issue senior securities in

 

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amounts such that our asset coverage ratio, as defined in the 1940 Act, equals at least 200% of total assets less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by senior securities, after each issuance of senior securities. If the value of our assets declines, we may be unable to satisfy this test. If that happens, we may be required to sell a portion of our investments and, depending on the nature of our leverage, repay a portion of our indebtedness at a time when such sales may be disadvantageous. Also, any amounts that we use to service our indebtedness would not be available for distributions to our common stockholders. Furthermore, as a result of issuing senior securities, our common stockholders would also be exposed to typical risks associated with increased leverage, including an increased risk of loss resulting from increased indebtedness.

If we issue preferred stock, the preferred stock would rank “senior” to common stock in our capital structure, preferred stockholders would have separate voting rights on certain matters and might have other rights, preferences, or privileges more favorable than those of our common stockholders, and the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change of control that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or otherwise be in their best interest.

We will not generally be able to issue and sell our common stock at a price below net asset value per share. We may, however, sell our common stock, or warrants, options or rights to acquire our common stock, at a price below the then-current net asset value per share of our common stock if our Board of Directors determines that such sale is in the best interests of us and our stockholders, and our stockholders approve such sale. In any such case, the price at which our securities are to be issued and sold may not be less than a price that, in the determination of our Board of Directors, closely approximates the market value of such securities (less any distributing commission or discount). We do not presently intend to issue our common stock at a price below the then-current net asset value per share of our common stock in connection with the Private Offering. If we raise additional funds by issuing more common stock, including in connection with an IPO, or senior securities convertible into, or exchangeable for, our common stock, then the percentage ownership of our stockholders at that time will decrease, and holders of our common stock might experience dilution.

We will borrow money, which will magnify the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and may increase the risk of investing in us.

The use of leverage magnifies the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and, therefore, increases the risks associated with investing in our securities. Our wholly-owned subsidiary, Borrower Sub, has received commitments to enter into the Revolving Credit Facility, which we expect to become effective shortly after we have completed the Initial Drawdown. The Revolving Credit Facility is expected to initially provide for secured borrowings up to the lesser of $500 million or the amount of capital commitments we have received, subject to restrictions imposed on borrowings under the 1940 Act and adequate collateral to support such borrowings. We expect the Revolving Credit Facility to provide for a three-year revolving period (with two one-year extension options, subject to Borrower Sub’s and the lenders’ consent) and have a maturity date six years from the date the facility closes (extendable in connection with an extension of the revolving period). Base rate borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility are expected to bear interest initially at LIBOR plus 2.25%. Borrower Sub is also expected to be required to pay a commitment fee of between 0.25% and 1.00% per year depending on the usage of the Revolving Credit Facility. The lenders will have a first lien security interest in all of the assets of Borrower Sub. We initially expect Borrower Sub to have no borrowings outstanding under the Revolving Credit Facility.

Furthermore, the Revolving Credit Facility is expected to impose financial and operating covenants on us and Borrower Sub that restrict our and its business activities. Continued compliance with these covenants will depend on many factors, some of which are beyond our control. Although we believe we and Borrower Sub will remain in compliance, there are no assurances that we or Borrower Sub will continue to comply with the covenants in the Revolving Credit Facility. Failure to comply with these covenants could result in a default under the Revolving Credit Facility that, if Borrower Sub were unable to obtain a waiver from the lenders, could result in the immediate acceleration of the amounts due under the Revolving Credit Facility, and thereby have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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In addition, we may borrow from and issue senior debt securities to banks, insurance companies and other lenders in the future. Lenders of these senior securities will have fixed dollar claims on our assets that are superior to the claims of our common stockholders, and we would expect such lenders to seek recovery against our assets in the event of a default.

If the value of our assets decreases, leveraging would cause net asset value to decline more sharply than it otherwise would have had we not leveraged. Similarly, any decrease in our income would cause net income to decline more sharply than it would have had we not borrowed. Such a decline could also negatively affect our ability to make dividend payments on our common stock. Leverage is generally considered a speculative investment technique. Our ability to service any debt that we incur will depend largely on our financial performance and will be subject to prevailing economic conditions and competitive pressures. Moreover, as the management fee payable to our Investment Adviser, CGMSIM, will be payable based on our gross assets, including those assets acquired through the use of leverage, CGMSIM will have a financial incentive to incur leverage which may not be consistent with our stockholders’ interests. In addition, our common stockholders will bear the burden of any increase in our expenses as a result of leverage, including any increase in the management fee payable to CGMSIM.

As a BDC, we generally will be required to meet a coverage ratio of total assets to total borrowings and other senior securities, which will include all of our borrowings and any preferred stock that we may issue in the future, of at least 200%. If this ratio declines below 200%, we may not be able to incur additional debt and could be required by law to sell a portion of our investments to repay some debt when it is disadvantageous to do so, which could have a material adverse effect on our operations, and we may not be able to make distributions. The amount of leverage that we employ will depend on our Investment Adviser’s and our Board of Directors’ assessment of market and other factors at the time of any proposed borrowing. We cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to obtain credit at all or on terms acceptable to us.

In addition, any debt facility into which we may enter would likely impose financial and operating covenants that restrict our business activities, including limitations that could hinder our ability to finance additional loans and investments or to make the distributions required to maintain our status as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. In particular, the Revolving Credit Facility will contain certain financial covenants that, among other things, will require us to maintain a minimum amount of equity and minimum levels of liquidity and to maintain compliance with certain collateral quality and coverage tests.

To the extent we use debt to finance our investments, changes in interest rates will affect our cost of capital and net investment income.

To the extent we borrow money to make investments, our net investment income will depend, in part, upon the difference between the rate at which we borrow funds and the rate at which we invest those funds. As a result, we can offer no assurance that a significant change in market interest rates will not have a material adverse effect on our net investment income in the event we use debt to finance our investments. In periods of rising interest rates, our cost of funds would increase, which could reduce our net investment income.

In addition, a rise in the general level of interest rates can be expected to lead to higher interest rates applicable to our debt investments. Accordingly, an increase in interest rates would make it easier for us to meet or exceed the incentive fee hurdle rate and may result in a substantial increase of the amount of incentive fees payable to our Investment Adviser with respect to our pre-incentive fee net investment income.

Our portfolio companies may prepay loans, which may have the effect of reducing our investment income if the returned capital cannot be invested in transactions with equal or greater yields.

Senior loans are generally callable at any time, most of them at no premium to par. We will generally be unable to predict the rate and frequency of such repayments. Whether a loan is called will depend both on the continued positive performance of the portfolio company and the existence of favorable financing market

 

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conditions that allow such portfolio company the ability to replace existing financing with less expensive capital. As market conditions change frequently, we will often be unable to predict when, and if, this may be possible for each of our portfolio companies. In the case of some of these loans, having the loan called early may have the effect of reducing our actual investment income below our expected investment income if the capital returned cannot be invested in transactions with equal or greater yields.

The financial projections of our portfolio companies could prove inaccurate.

We generally evaluate the capital structure of portfolio companies on the basis of financial projections prepared by the management of such portfolio companies. These projected operating results will normally be based primarily on judgments of the management of the portfolio companies. In all cases, projections are only estimates of future results that are based upon assumptions made at the time that the projections are developed. General economic conditions, which are not predictable with accuracy, along with other factors may cause actual performance to fall short of the financial projections that were used to establish a given portfolio company’s capital structure. Because of the leverage that is typically employed by our portfolio companies, this could cause a substantial decrease in the value of our investment in the portfolio company. The inaccuracy of financial projections could thus cause our performance to fall short of our expectations.

There will be uncertainty as to the value of our portfolio investments.

A large percentage of our portfolio investments will be in the form of debt investments that are not publicly traded. The fair value of these securities may not be readily determinable. We will value these investments on a quarterly basis in accordance with our valuation policy, which will be at all times consistent with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP. Our Board of Directors will utilize the services of third-party valuation firms to aid it in determining the fair value of these investments. The Board of Directors will discuss valuations and determine the fair value in good faith based on the input of our Investment Adviser and the respective third-party valuation firms. The factors that may be considered in the fair value pricing of our investments include the nature and realizable value of any collateral, the portfolio company’s ability to make payments and its earnings, the markets in which the portfolio company does business, comparisons to publicly-traded companies, discounted cash flow, relevant credit market indices, and other relevant factors. Because such valuations, and particularly valuations of private investments and private companies, are inherently uncertain, may fluctuate over short periods of time and may be based on estimates, our determinations of fair value may differ materially from the values that would have been used if a ready market for these securities existed. Our net asset value would be adversely affected if our determinations regarding the fair value of our investments were materially higher than the values that we ultimately realize upon the disposal of such securities.

We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly results.

We could experience fluctuations in our quarterly operating results due to a number of factors, including the interest rate payable on the debt securities we acquire, the default rate on such securities, the level of our expenses, variations in and the timing of the recognition of realized and unrealized gains or losses, the degree to which we encounter competition in our markets and general economic conditions. As a result of these factors, results for any period should not be relied upon as being indicative of performance in future periods.

There are significant potential conflicts of interest, including the management of other funds affiliated with Carlyle and of Churchill Cayman by our Investment Adviser’s key investment professionals, which could impact our investment returns.

Our executive officers and directors, as well as the other current and future principals of our Investment Adviser, CGMSIM, may serve as officers, directors or principals of entities that operate in the same or a related line of business as we do. Currently, our executive officers, as well as the other principals of our Investment Adviser, manage other funds affiliated with Carlyle and Churchill Cayman. In addition, the Churchill Financial Investment Team and designated GMS investment professionals would likely be responsible for sourcing and managing U.S. middle market debt investments for any Other Middle Market Vehicle. Accordingly, they will

 

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have obligations to investors in any Other Middle Market Vehicle, the fulfillment of which obligations may not be in the best interests of, or may be adverse to the interests of, us or our stockholders. The Churchill Financial Investment Team will have investment obligations to the investors of Churchill Cayman until the end of its reinvestment period on July 10, 2014.

In addition, we note that any affiliated investment vehicle currently existing, or formed in the future, and managed by our Investment Adviser or its affiliates, including Churchill Financial or Carlyle, may, notwithstanding different stated investment objectives, have overlapping investment objectives with our own and, accordingly, may invest in asset classes similar to those targeted by us. As a result, CGMSIM may face conflicts in allocating investment opportunities between us and such other entities. Although CGMSIM will endeavor to allocate investment opportunities in a fair and equitable manner, it is possible that, in the future, we may not be given the opportunity to participate in investments made by investment funds managed by our Investment Adviser or an investment manager affiliated with our Investment Adviser, including Churchill Financial or Carlyle. In any such case, when CGMSIM identifies an investment, it will be forced to choose which investment fund should make the investment.

We and our affiliates may own investments at different levels of a portfolio company’s capital structure or otherwise own different classes of a portfolio company’s securities. Such investments may inherently give rise to conflicts of interest or perceived conflicts of interest between or among the various classes of securities that may be held. Conflicts may also arise because portfolio decisions regarding our portfolio may benefit our affiliates. Our affiliates may pursue or enforce rights with respect to one of our portfolio companies, and those activities may have an adverse effect on us. As a result, prices, availability, liquidity and terms of our investments may be negatively impacted by the activities of our affiliates, and transactions for us may be impaired or effected at prices or terms that may be less favorable than would otherwise have been the case.

Carlyle considers its “One Carlyle” philosophy and the ability of its professionals to communicate and collaborate across funds, industries and geographies one of its significant competitive strengths. As a result of the expansion of its platform into various lines of business in the alternative asset management industry Carlyle is subject to a number of actual and potential conflicts of interest. In addition, as Carlyle expands its platform, the allocation of investment opportunities among its investment funds, including us, may become more complex. In addressing these conflicts and regulatory requirements across Carlyle’s various businesses, Carlyle has and may continue to implement certain policies and procedures (for example, information barriers) that may reduce the positive synergies that Carlyle has cultivated across these businesses through its “One Carlyle” approach. In addition, we may come into possession of material non-public information with respect to issuers in which we may be considering making an investment. As a consequence, we may be precluded from providing such information or other ideas to other funds affiliated with Carlyle that benefit from such information. To the extent we or any other funds affiliated with Carlyle fail to appropriately deal with any such conflicts, it could negatively impact our reputation or Carlyle’s reputation and our ability to raise additional funds and the willingness of counterparties to do business with us or result in potential litigation against us. Our communications with Carlyle corporate private equity and real asset investment professionals are subject to certain restrictions as set forth in its information barrier policy. In that regard, it is not generally expected the investment personnel involved in our day-to-day affairs will discuss any issuer-specific information with other members of Carlyle outside the GMS group, such as the personnel devoted to Carlyle’s buyout and real assets activities.

In the ordinary course of business, we may enter into transactions with affiliates and portfolio companies that may be considered related party transactions. In order to ensure that we do not engage in any prohibited transactions with any persons affiliated with us, we have implemented certain policies and procedures whereby certain of our executive officers screen each of our transactions for any possible affiliations between the proposed portfolio investment, us, companies controlled by us, stockholders that own more than 5% of us and our employees and directors. We will not enter into any agreements unless and until we are satisfied that doing so will not raise concerns under the 1940 Act or, if such concerns exist, we have taken appropriate actions to seek Board review and approval or exemptive relief for such transaction. Our Board of Directors will review these procedures on an annual basis.

 

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In the course of our investing activities, we will pay management and incentive fees to CGMSIM and reimburse CGMSIM for certain expenses it incurs in accordance with our Investment Advisory Agreement. As a result, investors in our common stock will invest on a “gross” basis and receive distributions on a “net” basis after expenses, resulting in a lower rate of return than an investor might achieve through direct investments. Accordingly, there may be times when the senior management team of CGMSIM has interests that differ from those of our stockholders, giving rise to a conflict.

We have entered into a royalty-free License Agreement with CIM (defined below), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Carlyle, pursuant to which CIM will grant us a non-exclusive license to use the name “Carlyle.” Under the License Agreement, we have the right to use the “Carlyle” name for so long as CGMSIM or one of its affiliates remains our Investment Adviser. In addition, we will pay CGMSFA, an affiliate of CGMSIM, its costs and expenses and our allocable portion of overhead incurred by it in performing its obligations under the Administration Agreement, including, compensation paid to or compensatory distributions received by our officers (including our Chief Compliance Officer and Chief Financial Officer) and their respective staff who provide services to us, operations staff who provide services to us, and any internal audit staff, to the extent internal audit performs a role in our Sarbanes-Oxley internal control assessment. These arrangements create conflicts of interest that our Board of Directors will seek to monitor.

The valuation process for certain of our portfolio holdings creates a conflict of interest.

Many of our portfolio investments are expected to be made in the form of securities that are not publicly traded. As a result, our Board of Directors will determine the fair value of these securities in good faith as described above in “There will be uncertainty as to the value of our portfolio investments.” In connection with that determination, investment professionals of CGMSIM may provide our Board of Directors with valuations based upon the most recent portfolio company financial statements available and projected financial results of each portfolio company. In addition, the interested directors on our Board of Directors have an indirect pecuniary interest in CGMSIM. The participation of CGMSIM’s investment professionals in our valuation process, and the indirect pecuniary interest in our Investment Adviser by the interested directors on our Board of Directors, could result in a conflict of interest as CGMSIM’s management fee is based, in part, on our gross assets and our incentive fees will be based, in part, on unrealized gains and losses.

The Investment Advisory Agreement and the Administration Agreement with CGMSIM and CGMSFA, respectively, were not negotiated on an arm’s length basis and may not be as favorable to us as if they had been negotiated with an unaffiliated third party.

The Investment Advisory Agreement with CGMSIM and the Administration Agreement with CGMSFA were negotiated between related parties. Consequently, while the terms of each were subject to approval by our Board of Directors, including a majority of independent directors, such terms, including the advisory fees payable to CGMSIM, may not be as favorable to us as if they had been negotiated with an unaffiliated third party.

Our Investment Adviser has not assumed any responsibility to us other than to render the services described in the Investment Advisory Agreement, and it will not be responsible for any action of our Board in declining to follow our Investment Adviser’s advice or recommendations. Pursuant to the Investment Advisory Agreement, our Investment Adviser and its managers, officers, employees, agents, controlling persons and any other person or entity affiliated with it will not be liable to us for any action taken or omitted to be taken by the Adviser in connection with the performance of any of its duties or obligations under the Investment Advisory Agreement or otherwise as an investment adviser of the Company (except to the extent specified in Section 36(b) of the 1940 Act concerning loss resulting from a breach of fiduciary duty (as the same is finally determined by judicial proceedings) with respect to the receipt of compensation for services). We have agreed to the fullest extent permitted by law, to provide indemnification and the right to the advancement of expenses, to each person who was or is made a party or is threatened to be made a party to or is involved (including, without limitation, as a

 

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witness) in any actual or threatened action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that he/she is or was a member, manager, officer, employee, agent, controlling person or any other person or entity affiliated with the Adviser with respect to all damages, liabilities, costs and expenses resulting from acts of our Investment Adviser in the performance of their duties under the Investment Advisory Agreement, other than acts not in good faith with the reasonable belief that the conduct was in, or not opposed to, the best interest of the Company, and conduct constituting gross negligence, bad faith, reckless disregard, or willful misfeasance. These protections may lead our Investment Adviser to act in a riskier manner when acting on our behalf than it would when acting for its own account.

We may be obligated to pay our Investment Adviser incentive compensation even if we incur a loss.

Our Investment Adviser will be entitled to incentive compensation for each calendar quarter in an amount equal to a percentage of the excess of our pre-incentive fee net investment income for that quarter (before deducting incentive compensation) above a performance threshold for that quarter. Our pre-incentive fee net investment income for incentive compensation purposes excludes realized and unrealized capital losses and depreciation that we may incur in the calendar quarter, even if such capital losses or depreciation result in a net loss on our statement of operations for that quarter. Thus, we may be required to pay CGMSIM incentive compensation for a calendar quarter even if there is a decline in the value of our portfolio or we incur a net loss for that quarter, subject to the deferral provisions.

Our fee structure may induce our Investment Adviser to pursue speculative investments.

The incentive fee payable by us to CGMSIM may create an incentive for CGMSIM to pursue investments on our behalf that are riskier or more speculative than would be the case in the absence of such compensation arrangement. The incentive fee payable to our Investment Adviser will be calculated based on a percentage of our return on invested capital. This may encourage our Investment Adviser to use leverage to increase the return on our investments. Under certain circumstances, the use of leverage may increase the likelihood of default, which would impair the value of our common stock. In addition, the Investment Adviser will receive the incentive fee based, in part, upon net capital gains realized on our investments. Unlike that portion of the incentive fee based on income, there is no hurdle rate applicable to the portion of the incentive fee based on net capital gains. As a result, the Investment Adviser may have a tendency to invest more capital in investments that are likely to result in capital gains as compared to income producing securities. Such a practice could result in our investing in more speculative securities than would otherwise be the case, which could result in higher investment losses, particularly during economic downturns.

The “catch-up” portion of the incentive fee may encourage CGMSIM to accelerate or defer interest payable by portfolio companies from one calendar quarter to another, potentially resulting in fluctuations in timing and dividend amounts.

We may invest, to the extent permitted by law, in the securities and instruments of other investment companies, including private funds, and, to the extent we so invest, will bear our ratable share of any such investment company’s expenses, including management and performance fees. We will also remain obligated to pay management and incentive fees to CGMSIM with respect to the assets invested in the securities and instruments of other investment companies. With respect to each of these investments, each of our stockholders will bear his or her share of the management and incentive fee of CGMSIM as well as indirectly bearing the management and performance fees and other expenses of any investment companies in which we invest.

Moreover, because the base management fee payable to our Adviser will be payable based on our gross assets, including those assets acquired through the use of leverage, CGMSIM will have a financial incentive to incur leverage which may not be consistent with our stockholders’ interests.

 

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We will become subject to corporate-level income tax if we are unable to qualify and maintain our qualification as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Code.

Although we intend to elect to be treated as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code for 2013 and succeeding tax years, no assurance can be given that we will be able to qualify for and maintain RIC status. To obtain and maintain RIC tax treatment under the Code, we must meet the following annual distribution, income source and asset diversification requirements.

 

   

The Annual Distribution Requirement for a RIC will be satisfied if we distribute to our stockholders, for each taxable year, at least 90% of our “investment company taxable income,” which is generally our ordinary taxable income plus the excess of realized net short-term capital gains over realized net long-term capital losses, if any (the “Annual Distribution Requirement”). Because we may use debt financing, we will be subject to certain asset coverage ratio requirements under the 1940 Act and financial covenants under loan and credit agreements that could, under certain circumstances, restrict us from making distributions necessary to satisfy the distribution requirement. If we are unable to obtain cash from other sources, we could fail to qualify for RIC tax treatment and thus become subject to corporate-level income tax.

 

   

The income source requirement will be satisfied if we derive in each taxable year at least 90% of our gross income from dividends, interest, payments with respect to loans of certain securities, gains from the sale of stock or other securities or foreign currencies, net income from certain “qualified publicly traded partnerships,” or other income derived with respect to our business of investing in such stock or securities or foreign currencies.

 

   

The asset diversification requirement will be satisfied if we meet certain asset diversification requirements at the end of each quarter of our taxable year. Failure to meet those requirements may result in our having to dispose of certain investments quickly in order to prevent the loss of RIC status. Because most of our investments will be in private companies, and therefore will be relatively illiquid, any such dispositions could be made at disadvantageous prices and could result in substantial losses.

If we fail to qualify for RIC tax treatment for any reason or become subject to corporate income tax, the resulting corporate taxes could substantially reduce our net assets, the amount of income available for distribution and the amount of our distributions.

We may have difficulty satisfying the Annual Distribution Requirement in order to qualify and maintain RIC status if we recognize income before or without receiving cash representing such income.

We may make investments that produce income that is not matched by a corresponding cash receipt by us. Any such income would be treated as income earned by us and therefore would be subject to the distribution requirements of the Code. Such investments may require us to borrow money or dispose of other securities in order to comply with those requirements. However, under the 1940 Act, we are not permitted to make distributions to our stockholders while our debt obligations and other senior securities are outstanding unless an “asset coverage” test is met. “Item 1. Business — Regulation as a Business Development Company — Senior Securities.”

If we are prohibited from making distributions or are unable to raise additional debt or equity capital or sell assets to make distributions, we may not be able to make sufficient distributions to satisfy the Annual Distribution Requirement, and therefore would not be able to maintain our qualification as a RIC. Additionally, we may make investments that result in the recognition of ordinary income rather than capital gain, or that prevent us from accruing a long-term holding period. These investments may prevent us from making capital gain distributions as described under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” below.

 

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For any period that we do not qualify as a “publicly offered regulated investment company,” as defined in the Code, stockholders will be taxed as though they received a distribution of some of our expenses.

A “publicly offered regulated investment company” is a RIC whose shares are either (i) continuously offered pursuant to a public offering, (ii) regularly traded on an established securities market or (iii) held by at least 500 persons at all times during the taxable year. We anticipate that we will not qualify as a publicly offered RIC immediately after the Private Offering; we may qualify as a publicly offered RIC for future taxable years. If we are not a publicly offered RIC for any period, a non-corporate stockholder’s allocable portion of our affected expenses, including our management fees, will be treated as an additional distribution to the stockholder and will be deductible by such stockholder only to the extent permitted under the limitations described below. For non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, trusts, and estates, significant limitations generally apply to the deductibility of certain expenses of a non-publicly offered RIC, including advisory fees. In particular, these expenses, referred to as miscellaneous itemized deductions, are deductible to an individual only to the extent they exceed 2% of such a stockholder’s adjusted gross income, and are not deductible for alternative minimum tax purposes.

We are subject to risks in using custodians, administrators and other agents.

We will depend on the services of custodians, administrators, including State Street, and other agents to carry out certain securities transactions and administrative services for us. In the event of the insolvency of a custodian, we may not be able to recover equivalent assets in full as we will rank among the custodian’s unsecured creditors in relation to assets which the custodian borrows, lends or otherwise uses. In addition, our cash held with a custodian may not be segregated from the custodian’s own cash, and we therefore may rank as unsecured creditors in relation thereto. The inability to recover assets from the custodian could have a material impact on our performance.

We will expend significant financial and other resources to comply with the requirements of being a public entity.

As a public entity, we will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”). These requirements may place a strain on our systems and resources. The Exchange Act requires that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting, which are discussed below. See “Item 1. Business — Regulation as a Business Development Company — Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.” In order to maintain and improve the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls, significant resources and management oversight will be required. We will be implementing additional procedures, processes, policies and practices for the purpose of addressing the standards and requirements applicable to public companies. These activities may divert management’s attention from other business concerns, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We expect to incur significant additional annual expenses related to these steps and, among other things, directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, director fees, reporting requirements of the SEC, transfer agent fees, additional administrative expenses payable to our Administrator to compensate them for hiring additional accounting, legal and administrative personnel, increased auditing and legal fees and similar expenses.

The systems and resources necessary to comply with public company reporting requirements will increase further once we cease to be an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act. As long as we remain an emerging growth company, we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies, including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and exemptions from the requirement to hold advisory votes on executive compensation. We will remain an emerging growth company for up to five years following an initial public offering, although if the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of any June 30 before that time, we would cease to be an emerging growth company as of the following December 31.

 

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We do not currently have comprehensive documentation of our internal controls and have not yet tested our internal controls in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and failure to achieve and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could have a material adverse effect on our business and the market price of our common stock.

We have not previously been required to comply with the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, including the internal control evaluation and certification requirements of Section 404 of that statute (“Section 404”), and we will not be required to comply with all of those requirements until we have been subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act for a specified period of time or the date we are no longer an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act. Accordingly, our internal controls over financial reporting do not currently meet all of the standards contemplated by Section 404 that we will eventually be required to meet. We are in the process of addressing our internal controls over financial reporting and are establishing formal procedures, policies, processes and practices related to financial reporting and to the identification of key financial reporting risks, assessment of their potential impact and linkage of those risks to specific areas and activities within our organization.

Additionally, we have begun the process of documenting our internal control procedures to satisfy the requirements of Section 404, which requires annual management assessments of the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. Our independent registered public accounting firm will not be required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting until the later of the year following our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC, or the date we are no longer an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act. Because we do not currently have comprehensive documentation of our internal controls and have not yet tested our internal controls in accordance with Section 404, we cannot conclude in accordance with Section 404 that we do not have a material weakness in our internal controls or a combination of significant deficiencies that could result in the conclusion that we have a material weakness in our internal controls. As a public entity, we will be required to complete our initial assessment in a timely manner. If we are not able to implement the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, our operations, financial reporting or financial results could be adversely affected. Matters impacting our internal controls may cause us to be unable to report our financial information on a timely basis and thereby subject us to adverse regulatory consequences, including sanctions by the SEC or violations of applicable stock exchange listing rules, and result in a breach of the covenants under the agreements governing any of our financing arrangements. There could also be a negative reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of investor confidence in us and the reliability of our financial statements. Confidence in the reliability of our financial statements could also suffer if we or our independent registered public accounting firm were to report a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting. This could materially adversely affect us and lead to a decline in the market price of our common stock, to the extent we have completed a Qualified IPO.

Stockholders may be subject to filing requirements under the Exchange Act as a result of an investment in us.

Because our common stock will be registered under the Exchange Act, ownership information for any person who beneficially owns 5% or more of our common stock will have to be disclosed in a Schedule 13D or other filings with the SEC. Beneficial ownership for these purposes is determined in accordance with the rules of the SEC, and includes having voting or investment power over the securities. In some circumstances, investors who choose to reinvest their dividends may see their percentage stake in us increased to more than 5%, thus triggering this filing requirement. Although we will provide in our quarterly statements the amount of outstanding stock and the amount of the investor’s stock, the responsibility for determining the filing obligation and preparing the filing remains with the investor. In addition, owners of 10% or more of our common stock are subject to reporting obligations under Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

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Stockholders may be subject to the short-swing profits rules under the Exchange Act as a result of an investment in us.

Persons with the right to appoint a director or who hold more than 10% of a class of our shares may be subject to Section 16(b) of the Exchange Act, which recaptures for the benefit of the issuer profits from the purchase and sale of registered stock within a six-month period.

There may be state licensing requirements.

We may be required to obtain various state licenses in order to, among other things, originate commercial loans. Applying for and obtaining required licenses can be costly and take several months. There is no assurance that we will obtain all of the licenses that we need on a timely basis. Furthermore, we will be subject to various information and other requirements in order to obtain and maintain these licenses, and there is no assurance that we will satisfy those requirements. Our failure to obtain or maintain licenses might restrict investment options and have other adverse consequences.

Investors in the Private Offering will be subject to transfer restrictions.

Prior to the completion of a Qualified IPO, investors who participate in the Private Offering may not sell, assign, transfer or otherwise dispose of (in each case, a “Transfer”) any common stock unless (i) we give consent and (ii) the Transfer is made in accordance with applicable securities laws. No Transfer will be effectuated except by registration of the Transfer on our books. Each transferee must agree to be bound by these restrictions and all other obligations as an investor in us. Following completion of a Qualified IPO, investors will be restricted from selling or disposing of their shares of common stock contractually by a lock-up agreement with the underwriters of the IPO and secondary offerings, and by the terms of the Subscription Agreement. It is possible that, once we are no longer accepting new commitments, we will seek to implement a program intended to provide limited liquidity and price discovery to holders of our common stock through an auction process; however, there can be no assurance that such a program will, in fact, be established or, if established, will provide meaningful levels of liquidity. In the event we implement such a program, investors would be subject to conditions and limitations on Transfers of our common stock made through the program.

Our Board of Directors is authorized to reclassify any unissued shares of common stock into one or more classes of preferred stock, which could convey special rights and privileges to its owners.

Under the MGCL and our charter, our Board of Directors is authorized to classify and reclassify any authorized but unissued shares of stock into one or more classes of stock, including preferred stock. Prior to the issuance of shares of each class or series, the Board of Directors is required by Maryland law and our charter to set the terms, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption for each class or series. Thus, the Board of Directors could authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock with terms and conditions which could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or otherwise be in their best interest. The cost of any such reclassification would be borne by our existing common stockholders. Certain matters under the 1940 Act require the separate vote of the holders of any issued and outstanding preferred stock. For example, holders of preferred stock would vote separately from the holders of common stock on a proposal to cease operations as a BDC. In addition, the 1940 Act provides that holders of preferred stock are entitled to vote separately from holders of common stock to elect two preferred stock directors. We currently have no plans to issue preferred stock, but may determine to do so in the future. The issuance of preferred stock convertible into shares of common stock might also reduce the net income per share and net asset value per share of our common stock upon conversion, provided, that we will only be permitted to issue such convertible preferred stock to the extent we comply with the requirements of Section 61 of the 1940 Act, including obtaining common stockholder approval. These effects, among others, could have an adverse effect on an investment in our common stock.

 

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Provisions of the MGCL and of our charter and bylaws could deter takeover attempts and have an adverse impact on the price of our common stock.

The Maryland General Corporation Law and our charter and bylaws contain provisions that may discourage, delay or make more difficult a change in control of Carlyle GMS Finance or the removal of our directors. We are subject to the Maryland Business Combination Act, subject to any applicable requirements of the 1940 Act. Our Board of Directors has adopted a resolution exempting from the Business Combination Act any business combination between us and any other person, subject to prior approval of such business combination by our Board of Directors, including approval by a majority of our disinterested directors. If the resolution exempting business combinations is repealed or our Board of Directors does not approve a business combination, the Business Combination Act may discourage third parties from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating such an offer. Our bylaws exempt from the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act (Control Share Act) acquisitions of our stock by any person. If we amend our bylaws to repeal the exemption from the Control Share Act, the Control Share Act also may make it more difficult for a third party to obtain control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating such a transaction. However, we will amend our bylaws to be subject to the Control Share Act only if our Board of Directors determines that it would be in our best interests and if the SEC staff does not object to our determination that our being subject to the Control Share Act does not conflict with the 1940 Act. The SEC staff has issued informal guidance setting forth its position that certain provisions of the Control Share Act would, if implemented, violate Section 18(i) of the 1940 Act.

As described further in Section V, we have also adopted measures that may make it difficult for a third party to obtain control of us, including provisions of our charter classifying our Board of Directors in three classes serving staggered three-year terms, and authorizing our Board of Directors to classify or reclassify shares of our stock in one or more classes or series, to cause the issuance of additional shares of our stock, to amend our charter without stockholder approval and to increase or decrease the number of shares of stock that we have authority to issue. These provisions, as well as other provisions of our charter and bylaws, may delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control that might otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.

Our Board of Directors may change our investment objective, operating policies and strategies without prior notice or stockholder approval.

Our Board of Directors has the authority to modify or waive our operating policies and strategies without prior notice (except as required by the 1940 Act) and without stockholder approval. In addition, none of our investment policies is fundamental and any of them may be changed without stockholder approval. However, absent stockholder approval, we may not change the nature of our business so as to cease to be, or withdraw our election as, a BDC. We cannot predict the effect any changes to our current operating policies and strategies would have on our business, operating results and value of our stock. Nevertheless, the effects may adversely affect our business and impact our ability to make distributions.

Changes in laws or regulations governing our operations may adversely affect our business.

Legal, tax and regulatory changes could occur that may adversely affect us. For example, from time to time the market for private equity transactions has been (and is currently being) adversely affected by a decrease in the availability of senior and subordinated financings for transactions, in part in response to credit market disruptions and/or regulatory pressures on providers of financing to reduce or eliminate their exposure to the risks involved in such transactions.

In addition, as private equity firms become more influential participants in the U.S. and global financial markets and economy generally, there recently has been pressure for greater governmental scrutiny and/or regulation of the private equity industry, in part. It is uncertain as to what form and in what jurisdictions such enhanced scrutiny and/or regulation, if any, on the private equity industry may ultimately take. Therefore, there can be no assurance as to whether any such scrutiny or initiatives will have an adverse impact on the private equity industry, including our ability to effect operating improvements or restructurings of its portfolio companies or otherwise achieve its objectives.

 

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On July 21, 2010, the Dodd-Frank Act was signed into law. Many of the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act have extended implementation periods and delayed effective dates and will require extensive rulemaking by regulatory authorities. While the impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on us and our portfolio companies may not be known for an extended period of time, the Dodd-Frank Act, including future rules implementing its provisions and the interpretation of those rules, along with other legislative and regulatory proposals directed at the financial services industry and the financial markets (including derivative markets) or affecting taxation that are proposed or pending in the U.S. Congress, may negatively impact the operations, cash flows or financial condition of us or our portfolio companies, impose additional costs on us or our portfolio companies, restrict or further regulate certain of our activities, including derivative trading and hedging activities, intensify the regulatory supervision of us or our portfolio companies or otherwise adversely affect our business or the business of our portfolio companies.

Our Investment Adviser can resign upon 60 days’ notice, and we may not be able to find a suitable replacement within that time, resulting in a disruption in our operations that could adversely affect our financial condition, business and results of operations.

Our Investment Adviser has the right, under the Investment Advisory Agreement, to resign at any time upon 60 days’ written notice, whether we have found a replacement or not. If our Investment Adviser resigns, we may not be able to find a new investment adviser or hire internal management with similar expertise and ability to provide the same or equivalent services on acceptable terms within 60 days, or at all. If we are unable to do so quickly, our operations are likely to experience a disruption, our financial condition, business and results of operations as well as our ability to pay distributions are likely to be adversely affected and the market price of our shares may decline. In addition, the coordination of our internal management and investment activities is likely to suffer if we are unable to identify and reach an agreement with a single institution or group of executives having the expertise possessed by our Investment Adviser and its affiliates. Even if we are able to retain comparable management, whether internal or external, the integration of such management and their lack of familiarity with our investment objective may result in additional costs and time delays that may adversely affect our financial condition, business and results of operations. Moreover, the termination by our Investment Adviser of our Investment Advisory Agreement for any reason will be an event of default under the Revolving Credit Facility which could result in the immediate acceleration of the amounts due under the Revolving Credit Facility.

Our Administrator can resign from its role as Administrator under the Administration Agreement, and a suitable replacement may not be found, resulting in disruptions that could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our Administrator has the right to resign under the Administration Agreement upon 60 days’ written notice, whether a replacement has been found or not. If our Administrator resigns, it may be difficult to find a new administrator or hire internal management with similar expertise and ability to provide the same or equivalent services on acceptable terms, or at all. If a replacement is not found quickly, our business, results of operations and financial condition are likely to be adversely affected and the market price of our common stock may decline. Even if a comparable service provider or individuals to perform such services are retained, whether internal or external, their integration into our business and lack of familiarity with our investment objective may result in additional costs and time delays that may materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Any of our three sub-administrators can resign from their respective roles pursuant to the Carlyle Sub-Administration Agreement, the CELF Sub-Administration Agreement and the State Street Sub-Administration Agreement, and suitable replacements may not be found, resulting in disruptions that could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Each of Carlyle Employee Co., CELF and State Street has the right to resign under their respective agreements, the Carlyle Sub-Administration Agreement, the CELF Sub-Administration Agreement and the State Street Sub-Administration Agreement, upon 60 days’ written notice, whether a replacement has been found or

 

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not. If any of our sub-administrators resign, it may be difficult to find a new administrator or hire internal management with similar expertise and ability to provide the same or equivalent services on acceptable terms, or at all. If a replacement is not found quickly, our business, results of operations and financial condition are likely to be adversely affected and the market price of our common stock may decline. Even if a comparable service provider or individuals to perform such services are retained, whether internal or external, their integration into our business and lack of familiarity with our investment objective may result in additional costs and time delays that may materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We, our Investment Adviser or its affiliates may be subject to litigation or regulatory proceedings the results of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

From time to time we, our Investment Adviser or its affiliates may be involved in various legal proceedings, lawsuits and claims incidental to the conduct of their respective businesses. We, our Investment Adviser and its affiliates are also subject to extensive regulation, which may result in regulatory proceedings. To the extent we face adverse outcomes in any such proceedings, our financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected. See “Item 8. Legal Proceedings” for a discussion of certain legal proceedings involving Carlyle and its affiliates.

ITEM 2. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Discussion of the Company’s Expected Operating Plans

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes and other financial information appearing elsewhere in this Registration Statement. In addition to historical information, the following discussion and other parts of this Registration Statement contain forward-looking information that involves risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated by such forward-looking information due to the factors discussed under “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and “Forward-Looking Statements” appearing elsewhere herein.

Overview

We are a newly organized Maryland corporation, formed in February 2012, structured as an externally managed, non-diversified closed-end investment company. We intend to elect to be treated as a BDC under the 1940 Act shortly following effectiveness of this Registration Statement. In addition, for tax purposes we intend to elect to be treated as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. We will be externally managed by CGMSIM, an investment adviser that is registered with the SEC under the Advisers Act. CGMSFA will provide the administrative services necessary for us to operate. Both CGMSIM and CGMSFA are wholly owned subsidiaries of Carlyle, a global alternative asset manager with more than $170 billion of assets under management as of December 31, 2012.

Our investment objective is to generate current income and capital appreciation primarily through debt investments in U.S. middle market companies with approximately $10 million to $100 million of EBITDA. We will seek to achieve our investment objective by investing primarily in Middle Market Senior Loans. First lien senior secured loans typically pay interest at rates which are determined periodically on the basis of a floating base lending rate, primarily LIBOR plus a premium. “Unitranche” loans are those that typically have a first lien on all assets of the borrower but provide leverage levels comparable to a combination of first lien and second lien or subordinated loans. Depending on market conditions, we expect that between 70% and 80% of the value of our assets (including the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes) will be invested in Middle Market Senior Loans, with the balance invested in Opportunistic Investments. The Middle Market Senior Loans will, if rated, generally be rated below investment grade. We may invest up to 30% of our portfolio opportunistically in “non-qualifying assets.” See “Item 1. Business — Regulation as a Business Development Company — Qualifying Assets.”

 

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Our business model will leverage, through our Adviser, Carlyle’s extensive network of relationships with private equity investment firms, other middle market lenders, financial advisors and experienced management teams to source debt investments in middle market companies and to source other high-yielding investments that provide attractive risk-adjusted returns. We expect that our investments will generally range between $5 million and $25 million, although we expect that the size of our investments may increase as our business grows. However, we do not expect any single investment to be larger than 10% of our gross assets once we are fully invested. We intend to maintain a strong focus on credit quality, including a high level of investment discipline and selectivity. We believe that a significant opportunity exists to achieve attractive risk-adjusted returns in the senior lending space due to a general lack of bank and other financing alternatives for growing middle market companies. We believe that recent-vintage middle market first lien senior secured loans represent attractive investment opportunities as evidenced by their superior pricing, more conservative borrowing terms and prudent deal structures as compared to their larger, broadly syndicated brethren.

The CGMSIM Investment Team managing our investments will comprise the Churchill Financial Investment Team, along with investment professionals from the broader GMS platform. On November 18, 2011, Churchill Financial and its primary asset, the collateral management contract of Churchill Cayman, were acquired by Carlyle. The Churchill Financial Investment Team will continue to source investments for Churchill Financial in its capacity as the collateral manager of Churchill Cayman. See “Item 7. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.”

We believe our Adviser can leverage Carlyle’s relationships with financial sponsors, senior lenders, financial institutions, hedge funds, mutual funds, placement agents and financial advisory firms to source attractive risk-adjusted return investment opportunities. In addition, we believe investment professionals that are part of the GMS platform have extensive private equity and debt capital markets experience, including negotiating, structuring and investing in first lien senior secured loans, second lien loans, high yield bonds, mezzanine debt, distressed debt and private equity securities, and can assist our Adviser in analyzing, structuring and monitoring its investments. Our Adviser and our Administrator will also have access to certain members of Carlyle’s staff, which as of December 31, 2012 consisted of more than 650 investment professionals and more than 500 administrative professionals who provide accounting, internal audit, finance, legal, compliance, operations, information technology and other administrative services.

Subsequent to our election to be treated as a BDC under the 1940 Act, we expect to close the Private Offering of our shares of common stock to investors in reliance on exemptions from the registration requirements of the Securities Act. At each closing of the Private Offering, each investor will make a capital commitment to purchase shares of our common stock pursuant to a subscription agreement entered into with us. Investors will be required to fund drawdowns to purchase shares of our common stock up to the amount of their respective capital commitments on an as-needed basis with a minimum of 10 business days’ prior notice to the investors. See “Item 1. Business — The Private Offering.” We anticipate commencing our loan origination and investment activities contemporaneously with the Initial Drawdown. Certain members of our senior management team, Carlyle employees and operating executives, and certain partners and affiliates of Carlyle will commit to purchase at least an aggregate of $40 million of our common stock at the Initial Closing, which is expected to occur shortly after we file our election to be regulated as a BDC under the 1940 Act.

We expect the proceeds from the Initial Drawdown and the Revolving Credit Facility will provide us with the necessary seed capital to commence operations. Thereafter, we anticipate raising additional equity capital for investment purposes through additional closings under the Private Offering. We may also undertake an initial public offering of our common stock under the Securities Act if our Board of Directors believes that it is beneficial to our investors and to the extent market conditions become favorable to do so. See “Item 1. Business — The Private Offering.”

We or a wholly-owned subsidiary of ours may also apply for an SBIC license from the SBA if we determine that doing so would be beneficial to our stockholders. An SBIC license would allow us greater flexibility in pursuing debt investments in smaller and lower middle market companies and could provide an attractive source

 

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of capital through the debt financing provided by the SBA. We can provide no assurance that we will apply for or be successful in obtaining an SBIC license. If we apply for an SBIC license, we may also determine to apply for exemptive relief from the SEC to permit us to exclude the debt that is guaranteed by the SBA from our 200% asset coverage test under the 1940 Act.

As a BDC, we will be required to comply with certain regulatory requirements. For instance, we generally have to invest at least 70% of our total assets in “qualifying assets,” including securities of private or thinly traded public U.S. companies and cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities and high-quality debt investments that mature in one year or less. The Private Offering will significantly increase our capital resources. SeeItem 1. Business — Regulation as a Business Development Company.

Revenues

We plan to generate revenue in the form of interest payable and capital gains on our portfolio investments. We generally expect our portfolio investments, whether in the form of senior loans or investments with similar economic characteristics, to have stated maturities of five to seven years and typically to bear interest at a floating rate. Interest will generally be payable quarterly or semiannually, with some amortization of principal. The remaining principal amount of our debt investments and any accrued but unpaid interest will become due at the maturity date. We expect to originate portfolio investments to a greater extent over time and may generate revenue from origination or structuring fees. In addition, we may generate revenue in the form of commitment fees, fees for providing managerial assistance and possibly consulting fees. Any such fees will be generated in connection with our investments and recognized as earned.

Expenses

Our primary operating expenses will include the payment of: (i) investment advisory fees, including base management fees and incentive fees, to our Investment Adviser, CGMSIM, pursuant to our Investment Advisory Agreement; (ii) costs and other expenses and our allocable portion of overhead incurred by CGMSFA in performing its administrative obligations under our Administration Agreement; and (iii) other operating expenses as detailed below. Our investment advisory fee will compensate our Investment Adviser for its work in identifying, evaluating, negotiating, closing, monitoring and servicing our investments. See “Item 1. Business — Investment Advisory Agreement.” We will bear all other expenses of our operations and transactions, including (without limitation except as noted):

 

   

our initial organization costs and offering costs incurred prior to the filing of our election to be treated as a BDC (the amount in excess of $1,500,000 to be paid by our Adviser);

 

   

the costs associated with the Private Offering;

 

   

the costs of any other offerings of our common stock and other securities, if any;

 

   

calculating individual asset values and our net asset value (including the cost and expenses of any independent valuation firms);

 

   

expenses, including travel expenses, incurred by the Adviser, or members of the CGMSIM Investment Team, or payable to third parties, performing due diligence on prospective portfolio companies and, if necessary, expenses of enforcing our rights;

 

   

the base management fee and any incentive fee;

 

   

certain costs and expenses relating to distributions paid on our shares;

 

   

administration fees payable under our Administration Agreement and sub-administration agreements, including related expenses;

 

   

debt service and other costs of borrowings or other financing arrangements;

 

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the allocated costs incurred by the Adviser in providing managerial assistance to those portfolio companies that request it;

 

   

amounts payable to third parties relating to, or associated with, making or holding investments;

 

   

the costs associated with subscriptions to data services, research-related subscriptions and expenses and quotation equipment and services used in making or holding investments;

 

   

transfer agent and custodial fees;

 

   

costs of hedging;

 

   

commissions and other compensation payable to brokers or dealers;

 

   

federal and state registration fees;

 

   

any U.S. federal, state and local taxes, including any excise taxes;

 

   

independent director fees and expenses;

 

   

costs of preparing financial statements and maintaining books and records, costs of preparing tax returns, costs of Sarbanes-Oxley compliance and attestation and costs of filing reports or other documents with the SEC (or other regulatory bodies), and other reporting and compliance costs, including registration and listing fees, and the compensation of professionals responsible for the preparation or review of the foregoing;

 

   

the costs of any reports, proxy statements or other notices to our stockholders (including printing and mailing costs), the costs of any stockholders’ meetings and the compensation of investor relations personnel responsible for the preparation of the foregoing and related matters;

 

   

the costs of specialty and custom software for monitoring risk, compliance and overall portfolio, including any development costs incurred prior to the filing of our election to be treated as a BDC;

 

   

our fidelity bond;

 

   

directors and officers/errors and omissions liability insurance, and any other insurance premiums;

 

   

indemnification payments;

 

   

direct fees and expenses associated with independent audits, agency, consulting and legal costs; and

 

   

all other expenses incurred by either the Administrator or us in connection with administering our business, including payments under the Administration Agreement for administrative services that will be equal to an amount that reimburses the Administrator for its costs and expenses and our allocable portion of overhead incurred by the Administrator in performing its obligations under the Administration Agreement, including compensation paid to or compensatory distributions received by our officers (including our Chief Compliance Officer and Chief Financial Officer) and any of their respective staff who provide services to us, operations staff who provide services to us, and any internal audit staff, to the extent internal audit performs a role in our Sarbanes-Oxley internal control assessment.

From time to time, the Adviser, the Administrator, or their respective affiliates, may pay third-party providers of goods or services. We will reimburse the Adviser, the Administrator or such affiliates thereof for any such amounts paid on our behalf. Each of CGMSFA, Carlyle Employee Co. and CELF will waive its right to be reimbursed in the event that such reimbursements would cause any distributions to our stockholders to constitute a return of capital. All of these expenses will ultimately be borne by our shareholders.

Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources

We will generate cash from the net proceeds of the Private Offering and any future offerings of securities and cash flows from operations, including earnings on future investments, as well as interest earned from the temporary investment of cash in cash-equivalents, U.S. government securities and other high-quality debt

 

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investments that mature in one year or less. We may also fund a portion of our investments through borrowings from banks and issuances of senior securities, including before we have fully invested the proceeds of the Private Offering. Our Revolving Credit Facility is expected to initially provide for borrowings up to the lesser of $500 million or the amount of capital commitments received, subject to restrictions imposed on borrowings under the 1940 Act and adequate collateral to support such borrowing. We expect the borrowing will be used primarily to fund purchases of Middle Market Senior Loans. Our Revolving Credit Facility is expected to provide for a three-year revolving period (with two one-year extension options, subject to Borrower Sub’s and the lenders’ consents) and have a maturity date six years from the date the facility closes (extendible in connection with an extension of the revolving period). Base rate borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility are expected to bear interest initially at LIBOR plus 2.25% per year.

Our primary use of funds is expected to be investments in portfolio companies, cash distributions to holders of our common stock, and the payment of operating expenses. We will also be liable as a borrower under the Revolving Credit Facility.

Hedging

To the extent that any of our senior loans or other investments are denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars, we may enter into currency hedging contracts to reduce our exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates. We may also enter into interest rate hedging agreements. Such hedging activities, which will be subject to compliance with applicable legal requirements, may include the use of futures, options, swaps and forward contracts. Costs incurred in entering into such contracts or in connection with settling them will be borne by us. We may also enter into credit hedging contracts, such as credit default swaps, that provide income in the event of a default, to hedge against portfolio concentration, company, or industry-specific issues. However, no assurance can be given that such hedging transactions will be entered into or, if they are, that they will be effective.

Distribution Policy

To the extent that we have income available, we intend to distribute quarterly dividends to our stockholders, beginning after our first full quarter following the completion of the Initial Drawdown. The amount of our dividends, if any, will be determined by our Board of Directors. Any dividends to our stockholders will be declared out of assets legally available for distribution. We anticipate that our distributions will generally be paid from post-offering taxable earnings, including interest and capital gains generated by our investment portfolio, and any other income, including any other fees (other than fees for providing managerial assistance), such as commitment, origination, structuring, diligence and consulting fees or other fees, that we receive from portfolio companies. However, if we do not generate sufficient taxable earnings during a year, all or part of a distribution may constitute a return of capital. The specific tax characteristics of our dividends and other distributions will be reported to stockholders after the end of each calendar year.

We intend to elect to be treated, and intend to qualify annually thereafter, as a RIC commencing with our 2013 taxable year. To maintain our qualification as a RIC, we must, among other things, distribute at least 90% of our ordinary income and realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses, if any, to our stockholders on an annual basis. In order to avoid certain excise taxes imposed on RICs, we intend to distribute during each calendar year an amount at least equal to the sum of: (1) 98% of our ordinary income for the calendar year; (2) 98.2% of our capital gain net income (both long-term and short-term) for the one-year period ending on October 31 of the calendar year; and, (3) any ordinary income and capital gain net income (both long-term and short-term) for preceding years that were not distributed during such years and on which we paid no U.S. federal income tax. In addition, although we currently intend to distribute realized net capital gains (i.e., net long term capital gains in excess of short term capital losses), if any, at least annually, we may in the future decide to retain such capital gains for investment, pay U.S. federal income tax on such amounts at regular corporate tax rates, and elect to treat such gains as deemed distributions to stockholders. If this happens,

 

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stockholders will be treated as if they had received an actual distribution of the capital gains we retain and reinvested the net after-tax proceeds in us. In this situation, stockholders would be eligible to claim a tax credit (or, in certain circumstances, a tax refund) equal to their allocable share of the tax we paid on the capital gains deemed distributed. See “Item 1. Business — Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.” We can offer no assurance that we will achieve results that will permit the payment of any cash distributions and, to the extent that we issue senior securities, we will be prohibited from making distributions if doing so causes us to fail to maintain the asset coverage ratios stipulated by the 1940 Act or if distributions are limited by the terms of any of our borrowings.

We intend to make distributions in additional shares of our common stock unless a stockholder elects to receive dividends and/or long-term capital gains distributions in cash. Although distributions paid in the form of additional shares of our common stock will generally be subject to U.S. federal, state and local taxes in the same manner as cash distributions, investors receiving distributions paid in the form of additional shares of our common stock would not receive any corresponding cash distributions with which to pay any such applicable taxes. SeeItem 9. Market Price of and Dividends on the Registrant’s Common Equity and Related Stockholder Matters — Dividend Reinvestment Plan.” Stockholders who hold shares of our common stock in the name of a broker or financial intermediary should contact the broker or financial intermediary regarding an election to receive distributions in cash. We can offer no assurance that we will achieve results that will permit the payment of any cash distributions and, if we issue senior securities, we will be prohibited from making distributions if doing so causes us to fail to maintain the asset coverage ratios stipulated by the 1940 Act or if distributions are limited by the terms of any of our borrowings.

Revolving Credit Facility

In addition, our wholly-owned subsidiary, Borrower Sub, has received commitments to enter into the Revolving Credit Facility with various lenders. We expect the Revolving Credit Facility will become effective shortly after we have completed the Initial Drawdown. The Revolving Credit Facility is expected to initially provide for secured borrowings up to the lesser of $500 million or the amount of capital commitments we have received, subject to restrictions imposed on borrowings under the 1940 Act and adequate collateral to support such borrowings. We expect the borrowing will be used primarily to fund purchases of Middle Market Senior Loans. We expect the Revolving Credit Facility to provide for a three-year revolving period (with two one-year extension options, subject to Borrower Sub’s and the lenders’ consent) and have a maturity date six years from the date the facility closes (extendable in connection with an extension of the revolving period). Base rate borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility are expected to bear interest initially at LIBOR plus 2.25% per year. Borrower Sub is also expected to be required to pay a commitment fee of between 0.25% and 1.00% per year depending on the usage of the Revolving Credit Facility. The lenders will have a first lien security interest in all of the assets of Borrower Sub.

As part of the Revolving Credit Facility, Borrower Sub will be subject to limitations as to how borrowed funds may be used including, but not limited to, restrictions on geographic concentrations, sector concentrations, loan size, tenor and investment ratings (or shadow ratings). There are also certain requirements relating to interest coverage and portfolio performance, including limitations on delinquencies and charge offs, violation of which could result in the immediate acceleration of the amounts due under the Revolving Credit Facility. The Revolving Credit Facility will also be subject to a borrowing base that applies different advance rates to assets held by Borrower Sub based generally on the fair market value of such assets. Under certain circumstances, we may be obliged to repurchase loans from Borrower Sub.

Other Contractual Obligations

We will have certain commitments pursuant to our Investment Advisory Agreement that we have entered into with CGMSIM. We have agreed to pay a fee for investment advisory and management services consisting of two components — a base management fee and an incentive fee. Payments under the Investment Advisory Agreement will be equal to (i) a percentage of the value of our average gross assets and (ii) a two-part incentive

 

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fee. SeeItem 1. Business — Investment Advisory Agreement.” We have also entered into a contract with CGMSFA to serve as our administrator. Payments under the Administration Agreement will be equal to an amount that reimburses CGMSFA for its costs and expenses and our allocable portion of overhead incurred by CGMSFA in performing its obligations under the Administration Agreement, including our allocable portion of the compensation paid to or compensatory distributions received by our officers (including our Chief Compliance Officer and Chief Financial Officer) and their respective staff who provide services to us, operations staff who provide services to us, and any internal audit staff, to the extent internal audit performs a role in our Sarbanes-Oxley internal control assessment. SeeItem 1. Business — Administration Agreement.

Our Investment Advisory Agreement and Administration Agreement, as well as the Carlyle Sub-Administration Agreement, the CELF Sub-Administration Agreement and the State Street Sub-Administration Agreement, may be terminated by any party without penalty upon not less than 60 days’ written notice to the other. If any of these agreements is terminated, the costs we incur under a new agreement may increase. In addition, we will likely incur significant time and expense in locating alternative parties to provide the services we expect to receive under these agreements. Any new Investment Advisory Agreement would also be subject to approval by our stockholders.

Related Parties

See “Item 7. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence” for a description of certain transactions and relationships with related parties.

ITEM 3. PROPERTIES

Our headquarters are located at 520 Madison Avenue, 38th Floor, New York, New York 10022, and are provided by Carlyle GMS Finance Administration in accordance with the terms of our Administration Agreement. We believe that our office facilities are suitable and adequate for our business as it is contemplated to be conducted.

ITEM 4. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT

In conjunction with our formation, CGMSIM purchased 100 shares of our common stock at a purchase price of $20.00 per share. We expect CGMSIM will be our sole stockholder until the Initial Drawdown and our issuance of shares in connection therewith has been completed.

ITEM 5. DIRECTORS AND EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

Our business and affairs are managed under the direction of our Board of Directors. Our Board of Directors currently consists of seven members, four of whom are not “interested persons” of Carlyle GMS Finance as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the 1940 Act. We refer to these individuals, each of whom also qualifies as an as our “independent director” within the definition set forth in Rule 5605(a)(2) of the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules, as our “independent directors.” Our Board of Directors elects our officers, who serve at the discretion of our Board of Directors. The responsibilities of each director include, among other things, the oversight of our investment activity, the valuation of our assets, and oversight of our financing arrangements. Our Board of Directors has also established an Audit Committee, and may establish additional committees in the future.

 

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Board of Directors and Executive Officers

Directors

Under our charter and bylaws, our directors are divided into three classes. At each annual meeting, directors are elected for staggered terms of three years (other than the initial terms, which extend for up to three years), with the term of office of only one of these three classes of directors expiring each year. Each director will hold office for the term to which he or she is elected and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. Information regarding our Board of Directors is as follows:

 

Name

  

Age

    

Position

   Director
Since
     Expiration of
Term
 

Interested Directors

           

Michael J. Petrick

     51       Chairman of the Board of Directors      2012         2014   

Kenneth J. Kencel

     54       President and Director      2012         2016   

Eliot P.S. Merrill

     42       Director      2013         2015   

Independent Directors

           

Nigel D.T. Andrews

     65       Director      2012         2015   

William P. Hendry

     63       Director      2013         2016   

Michael L. Rankowitz

     55       Director      2013         2014   

John G. Nestor

     68       Director      2013         2016   

The address for each of our directors is c/o Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc., 520 Madison Avenue, 38th Floor, New York, NY 10022.

Executive Officers Who Are Not Directors

 

Name

  

Age

    

Position

Karen Vejseli

     39       Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer

Ian J. Sandler

     38       Chief Operating Officer and General Counsel

Matthew Cottrell

     40       Chief Compliance Officer and Secretary

Biographical Information

Directors

Our directors have been divided into two groups — interested directors and independent directors. An interested director is an “interested person” as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the 1940 Act.

Interested Directors

Michael J. Petrick has served as the Chairman of our Board of Directors since 2012 and is Chairman of our Investment Committee. He is a Managing Director of Carlyle, Head of GMS, a member of Carlyle’s Operating Committee, and a member of Carlyle’s management committee as of March 14, 2013. As Head of GMS, Mr. Petrick leads Carlyle’s array of structured credit, mezzanine and distressed teams and oversees Carlyle’s interests in hedge funds. Prior to joining Carlyle, Mr. Petrick had a 20-year career at Morgan Stanley. In addition to being Global Head of Institutional Sales and Trading and a member of Morgan Stanley’s Operating Committee and Management Committee, Mr. Petrick presided over numerous businesses at Morgan Stanley, including Global Head of Corporate Credit, Global Head of Non-Investment Grade, Global Head of Distressed Investing, and Global Head of Leveraged Finance and Restructurings. In these various capacities, Mr. Petrick was responsible for a diverse set of asset classes, including equities, commodities, corporate, residential, commercial, proprietary trading, tax and direct investments. Mr. Petrick has served on the boards of DigitalGlobe and Marvel Entertainment. Mr. Petrick graduated with a B.A. in chemistry and economics from Grinnell College

 

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in 1984. He earned his M.B.A. in finance from the University of Chicago in 1987. Mr. Petrick’s depth of experience in investment management and capital markets, intimate knowledge of the business and operations of Carlyle’s investment platform, and experience as a director of other public and private companies provides our Board of Directors with valuable insight and leadership.

Kenneth J. Kencel has served as our President and Director since 2012. Mr. Kencel is a member of our Investment Committee and serves as a Managing Director of Carlyle. Mr. Kencel previously served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Churchill Financial from its founding in February 2006 until its acquisition by Carlyle in November 2011. Previously, Mr. Kencel served as Head of Leveraged Finance for RBC Capital Markets, a division of Royal Bank of Canada, from 2001 to 2004. At RBC Capital Markets, Mr. Kencel was responsible for all leveraged finance activities and for managing RBC Capital Markets’ relationships with private equity investment firms, and also served on the firm’s Mezzanine Investment and Debt Capital Markets Underwriting Committees. Prior to joining RBC Capital Markets, Mr. Kencel served as Co-Head of Indosuez Capital, a middle market merchant banking and asset management business. During his over 25-year career, Mr. Kencel has had a broad range of experience in middle market leveraged finance, having been a founder of the high yield finance businesses at both Chase Securities Inc. (now JP Morgan) and SBC Warburg Inc. (now UBS). He serves on the Board of Advisors and is an Adjunct Professor at the McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University. Mr. Kencel received his B.S. in Business Administration, magna cum laude, from Georgetown University and his J.D. from Northwestern University School of Law. Mr. Kencel’s depth of experience in corporate finance, capital markets and financial services, as well as his intimate knowledge of Carlyle GMS Finance’s business and operations, gives our Board of Directors valuable industry-specific knowledge and expertise on these and other matters.

Eliot P.S. Merrill has served on our Board of Directors since 2013. Mr. Merrill is a Managing Director of Carlyle, where he focuses on U.S. buyout opportunities in the telecommunications and media sectors. He is based in New York. Prior to joining Carlyle in 2011, Mr. Merrill was a Principal at Freeman Spogli & Co., a buyout fund with offices in New York and Los Angeles. Prior to that, Mr. Merrill worked at Dillon Read & Co. in the Mergers and Acquisitions Group. Prior to that, Mr. Merrill was a Sail Consultant and Special Project Coordinator for Doyle Sailmakers, Inc. He currently is a member of the Board of Directors of Getty Images and TCW Group. Mr. Merrill has previously served on the boards of AMC Loews and Nielson Company B.V. Mr. Merrill graduated magna cum laude from Harvard College. Mr. Merrill’s depth of experience in investment management and capital markets, intimate knowledge of the business and operations of Carlyle’s investment platform, and experience as a director of other public and private companies provides our Board of Directors with valuable insight.

Independent Directors

Nigel D.T. Andrews has served on our Board of Directors since 2012, and is a member of our Audit Committee. Mr. Andrews currently serves as a director and as a member of the audit and remuneration committees of Old Mutual plc. (since 2002), as a trustee of Victory Funds (since 2002) and as a governor of the London Business School (since 2002) and also manages his own private investments. From 2000 to 2010, Mr. Andrews served on the board of directors of Chemtura Corporation, a NYSE listed company. Mr. Andrews also served as a Managing Director of Internet Capital Group, Inc. from 2000 to 2001. From 1987 to 2000, Mr. Andrews held various senior management positions within General Electric Company, including Executive Vice President of GE Capital from 1993 to 2000 and, prior to that, Vice President and General Manager of GE Plastics-Americas. During Mr. Andrews’ 13-year career with GE, he also served as a Vice President for Corporate Business Development and Strategy reporting to the Chairman of the Board. Prior to joining GE, Mr. Andrews was a partner at Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. He began his career in business management at Shell International Chemical Company. Mr. Andrews received an M.B.A. from the London Business School and a B.Sc. from the University of Sheffield. Mr. Andrew’s broad executive experience with the operations and transactions of industrial and financial services businesses provides our Board of Directors with valuable insights and knowledge that will enhance our ability to achieve our investment objectives.

 

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William P. Hendry has served on our Board of Directors since 2013, and is the Chairman of our Audit Committee. Mr. Hendry currently serves on the Board as a director of FirstCity since August 2010, and Chairman of the Board since August 2011. Mr. Hendry has more than 30 years of experience in the banking industry and headed Bank of Scotland’s operations in the United States before it was acquired in 2009 by Lloyds Banking Group. He launched W.P. Hendry and Associates in February 2009, a bank consulting firm that handles complex business and lending issues. Mr. Hendry has held senior banking positions in Scotland, Northern Ireland, Canada, the Middle East, Africa and the United States. Mr. Hendry has extensive experience in mergers and acquisitions, most notably at Drive Financial Services (a national subprime auto lender) where he led HBOS plc’s investment analysis group in 2000, then becoming Chairman of the Board until the business was sold to Banco Santander in 2006. Mr. Hendry holds an MBA from the University of Strathclyde and completed an advanced management program at Harvard Business School. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Bankers in Scotland and a Fellow of the Institute of Canadian Bankers. Mr. Hendry is an experienced leader whose numerous management positions and global experiences in the financial services sector have provided him with an abundance of skills and valuable insight in handling complex financial transactions and issues, all of which makes him well qualified to serve on our Board.

Michael L. Rankowitz has served on our Board of Directors since 2013, and is a member of our Audit Committee. Mr. Rankowitz has served as a senior advisor to Morgan Stanley, and as a member of its pension committee, since 2006. In 2001, Mr. Rankowitz retired from Morgan Stanley, where he worked for over 20 years, most recently as co-head of global high yield, responsible for risk management, research and sales for high yield, emerging markets, bank debt and distressed securities. He is a formerly a director and chairman of the finance committee of the New York Racing Association. Mr. Rankowitz, with his extensive knowledge of the leveraged finance markets across both loans and bonds, will provide critical insight on risk management and portfolio valuation, and strategic direction on the portfolio across difference market cycles. Mr. Rankowitz, with his extensive knowledge of the leveraged finance markets across both loans and bonds, will provide critical insight on risk management and portfolio valuation, and strategic direction on the portfolio across different market cycles.

John G. Nestor has served on our Board of Directors since 2013, and is a member of our Audit Committee. Mr. Nestor joined Kirtland Capital Partners in March 1986. He is chairman and senior managing partner for this private investment firm. Prior to joining Kirtland Capital, Mr. Nestor worked for 16 years for Continental Illinois Bank. For eight years he focused on lending to small businesses in the Chicago area. In 1977 Mr. Nestor was transferred to Philadelphia where he was involved in commercial lending and in 1979 he moved to Cleveland to manage Continental’s Cleveland Office. Mr. Nestor is a member of the advisory board of Kirtland Capital Partners and is Chairman of SmartSource Computer and Audio Visual Rentals. Mr. Nestor is also a board member for Essex Rental Corp. and Truck Bodies and Equipment International, Inc. Mr. Nestor serves as a trustee of the Kelvin and Eleanor Smith Foundation and the Deaconess Community Foundation. He is also a member of the advisory board of the Beech Brook Leadership Advisory Council. Mr. Nestor is the former chairman of the board of trustees of the Cleveland Foodbank and The Diversity Center. A native of Cleveland, Mr. Nestor attended St. Ignatius High School. He holds an undergraduate degree in business from Georgetown University, an MBA from the University of Notre Dame and an MA in Urban Studies from Loyola University of Chicago. Mr. Nestor is an experienced leader whose numerous board and advisory positions and experiences in the middle markets provide our board valuable insight.

Executive Officers Who Are Not Directors

Karen Vejseli has served as our Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer since 2012 and is a Managing Director of Carlyle and Chief Financial Officer of GMS. Prior to joining Carlyle, Ms. Vejseli served as a Director at AIG, Inc. from 2010 to 2011 where she led global accounting policy implementation for the Chief Accounting Officer and oversaw corporate transaction accounting and tax review, among other responsibilities. Previously, Ms. Vejseli had a 14-year career at Ernst & Young LLP in the asset management practice in New York. Ms. Vejseli was an audit partner at Ernst & Young LLP responsible for serving public asset managers, 1940 Act

 

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registered investment companies and other alternative investment vehicles. Ms. Vejseli graduated with a B.B.A. in accounting from Stetson University and earned her Master of Accountancy from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Ms. Vejseli is a Certified Public Accountant and member of both the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants as well as the New York State Society of Certified Public Accountants.

Ian J. Sandler has served as our Chief Operating Officer and General Counsel since 2012 and is a Managing Director of Carlyle and Chief Operating Officer (COO) and Chief Legal Officer of GMS. Prior to joining Carlyle, Mr. Sandler had a 7-year career at Morgan Stanley. Mr. Sandler was the Global COO for the technology and modeling division. Prior to that role, Mr. Sandler served as the global head for the loan closing business and the COO for the loan and high yield business. During his tenure at Morgan Stanley, Mr. Sandler served on the Loan Syndication and Trading Association (LSTA) Board of Directors from 2005 to 2009 and served as the Vice-Chairman of the LSTA from 2007 to 2009. Prior to working at Morgan Stanley, Mr. Sandler worked as a bankruptcy lawyer at Kramer Levin Naftalis and Frankel. Mr. Sandler received a J.D. from the University of Pennsylvania Law School. He received a Bachelor in General Studies from the University of Michigan. Mr. Sandler holds Series 7, 24 and 63 licenses.

Matthew Cottrell has served as our Chief Compliance Officer and Secretary since 2012 and is a Director of Carlyle based in London. Since joining Carlyle in 2006, Mr. Cottrell has been involved with fund structuring, documentation and management of a range of CLO, low levered, market value and synthetic funds together with regulation, compliance and operations management for GMS in Europe. Prior to joining Carlyle, Mr. Cottrell was a Director in structured finance and credit policy at Fitch Ratings and he practiced as a banking lawyer in the international finance group at Ashurst, an international law firm. Mr. Cottrell holds a B.Sc. (Hons) in Mathematics and Philosophy from Durham University and an LPC from the College of Law. From 1998 to 2002, Mr. Cottrell was a Solicitor of the Supreme Court of England and Wales. He is a CFA charterholder and has a CIMA diploma in management accounting.

Board Leadership Structure

Our Board of Directors monitors and performs an oversight role with respect to our business and affairs, including with respect to our investment practices and performance, compliance with regulatory requirements and the services, expenses and performance of our service providers. Among other things, our Board of Directors approves the appointment of our Investment Adviser and officers, reviews and monitors the services and activities performed by our Investment Adviser and executive officers, and approves the engagement and reviews the performance of our independent registered public accounting firm.

Under our bylaws, our Board of Directors may designate a Chairman to preside over the meetings of our Board of Directors and meetings of the stockholders and to perform such other duties as may be assigned to him by the Board. We do not have a fixed policy as to whether the Chairman of the Board should be an independent director and believe that we should maintain the flexibility to select the Chairman and reorganize the leadership structure, from time to time, based on criteria that are in our best interests and our stockholders at such times.

Presently, Mr. Petrick serves as the Chairman of our Board of Directors. Mr. Petrick is an “interested person” of Carlyle GMS Finance as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the 1940 Act because he presently serves as the Head of GMS. We believe that Mr. Petrick’s extensive knowledge of the financial services industry and capital markets in particular qualify him to serve as the Chairman of our Board of Directors. We believe that we are best served through this existing leadership structure, as Mr. Petrick’s relationship with our Investment Adviser provides an effective bridge and encourages an open dialogue between management and our Board of Directors, ensuring that both groups act with a common purpose.

Our Board of Directors does not currently have a designated lead independent director. We are aware of the potential conflicts that may arise when a non-independent director is Chairman of the Board, but believe these potential conflicts are offset by our strong corporate governance policies. Our corporate governance policies include regular meetings of the independent directors in executive session without the presence of interested

 

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directors and management, the establishment of an Audit Committee comprised solely of independent directors and the appointment of a Chief Compliance Officer, with whom the independent directors meet regularly without the presence of interested directors and other members of management, for administering our compliance policies and procedures.

We recognize that different board leadership structures are appropriate for companies in different situations. We intend to re-examine our corporate governance policies on an ongoing basis to ensure that they continue to meet our needs.

Board’s Role In Risk Oversight

Our Board of Directors performs its risk oversight function primarily through (a) its standing Audit Committee, which reports to the entire Board of Directors and is comprised solely of independent directors, and (2) active monitoring by our Chief Compliance Officer and of our compliance policies and procedures.

As described below in more detail under “Committees of the Board of Directors,” the Audit Committee assists our Board of Directors in fulfilling its risk oversight responsibilities. The Audit Committee’s risk oversight responsibilities include overseeing the internal audit staff (sourced through the Administrator and Carlyle Employee Co.), accounting and financial reporting processes, our valuation process, our systems of internal controls regarding finance and accounting and audits of our financial statements.

Our Board of Directors also performs its risk oversight responsibilities with the assistance of the Chief Compliance Officer. Our Board of Directors will annually review a written report from the Chief Compliance Officer discussing the adequacy and effectiveness of our compliance policies and procedures and our service providers. The Chief Compliance Officer’s annual report will address, at a minimum, (a) the operation of our compliance policies and procedures and our service providers since the last report; (b) any material changes to such policies and procedures since the last report; (c) any recommendations for material changes to such policies and procedures as a result of the Chief Compliance Officer’s annual review; and (d) any compliance matter that has occurred since the date of the last report about which our Board of Directors would reasonably need to know to oversee our compliance activities and risks. In addition, the Chief Compliance Officer will meet separately in executive session with the independent directors at least once each year.

We believe that our Board of Director’s role in risk oversight is effective, and appropriate given the extensive regulation to which we are already subject as a BDC. As a BDC, we are required to comply with certain regulatory requirements that control the levels of risk in our business and operations. For example, our ability to incur indebtedness is limited such that our asset coverage must equal at least 200% immediately after each time we incur indebtedness, we generally have to invest at least 70% of our total assets in “qualifying assets” and we are not generally permitted to invest in any portfolio company in which one of our affiliates currently has an investment.

We recognize that different board roles in risk oversight are appropriate for companies in different situations. We intend to re-examine the manners in which our Board of Directors administers its oversight function on an ongoing basis to ensure that they continue to meet our needs.

Committees of the Board of Directors

Our Board of Directors has established an Audit Committee, and may establish additional committees in the future. All directors are expected to attend at least 75% of the aggregate number of meetings of our Board of Directors and of the respective committees on which they serve. We require each director to make a diligent effort to attend all Board of Directors and committee meetings as well as each annual meeting of our stockholders.

 

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Audit Committee

The Audit Committee is currently composed of Messrs. Andrews, Hendry, Rankowitz and Nestor, all of whom are not considered “interested persons” of our company as that term is defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the 1940 Act. Mr. Hendry serves as Chairman of the Audit Committee. Our Board of Directors has determined that Mr. Hendry is an “audit committee financial expert” as that term is defined under Item 407 of Regulation S-K, as promulgated under the Exchange Act. Messrs. Andrews, Hendry, Rankowitz and Nestor, meet the current independence and experience requirements of Rule 10A-3 of the Exchange Act. The Audit Committee operates pursuant to a charter approved by our Board of Directors, which sets forth the responsibilities of the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee’s responsibilities include establishing guidelines and making recommendations to our Board of Directors regarding the valuation of our loans and investments, selecting our independent registered public accounting firm, reviewing with such independent registered public accounting firm the planning, scope and results of their audit of our financial statements, pre-approving the fees for services performed, reviewing with the independent registered public accounting firm the adequacy of internal control systems, reviewing our annual financial statements, overseeing internal audit staff and periodic filings and receiving our audit reports and financial statements.

Nominating Committee

Nomination for election as a director may be made by the Board of Directors or by stockholders in compliance with the procedures set forth in our bylaws. The Board of Directors does not have a standing nominating committee because it believes the function typically served by this committee is best handled by those directors whose term is not expiring currently.

The Board of Directors seeks candidates who possess the background, skills and expertise to make a significant contribution to our Board, our company and our stockholders. In considering possible candidates for election as a director, the Board takes into account, in addition to such other factors as it deems relevant, the desirability of selecting directors who:

 

   

are of high character and integrity;

 

   

are accomplished in their respective fields, with superior credentials and recognition;

 

   

have relevant expertise and experience upon which to be able to offer advice and guidance to management;

 

   

have sufficient time available to devote to our affairs;

 

   

are able to work with the other members of our Board of Directors and contribute to our success;

 

   

can represent the long-term interests of our stockholders as a whole; and

 

   

are selected such that our Board of Directors represents a range of backgrounds and experience.

The Board of Directors has not adopted a formal policy with regard to the consideration of diversity in identifying director nominees. In determining whether to recommend a director nominee, the Board of Directors considers and discusses diversity, among other factors, with a view toward the needs of our Board of Directors as a whole. The Board of Directors generally conceptualizes diversity expansively to include, without limitation, concepts such as race, gender, national origin, differences of viewpoint, professional experience, education, skill and other qualities that contribute to our Board of Directors, when identifying and recommending director nominees. The Board of Directors believes that the inclusion of diversity as one of many factors considered in selecting director nominees is consistent with the goal of creating a Board of Directors that best serves our needs and the interests of our stockholders.

Compensation Committee

We do not have a compensation committee because our executive officers do not receive any direct compensation from us.

 

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Indemnification Agreements

We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers that provide the maximum indemnification permitted under Maryland law and the 1940 Act. Each indemnification agreement provides that we shall indemnify the director or executive officer who is a party to the agreement, or an Indemnitee, including the advancement of legal expenses, if, by reason of his or her corporate status, the Indemnitee is, or is threatened to be, made a party to or a witness in any threatened, pending, or completed proceeding, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law and the 1940 Act.

ITEM 6. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

Compensation of Executive Officers

None of our officers receives direct compensation from us. We have agreed to reimburse CGMSFA for our allocable portion of the compensation paid to or compensatory distributions received by our Chief Financial Officer and Chief Compliance Officer. In addition, to the extent that CGMSFA outsources any of its functions, we will pay the fees associated with such functions at cost. As discussed under “Item 7. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence,” we will agree to reimburse CGMSFA, Carlyle Employee Co., and CELF for our allocable portion of the compensation of any personnel, other than legal department personnel, that they provide for our use.

Compensation of Directors

Our independent directors’ annual fee is $75,000. The independent directors also receive $2,500 ($1,000 if they participate telephonically) plus reimbursement of reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred in connection with attending each Board meeting and $1,000 plus reimbursement of reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred in connection with each committee meeting attended. In addition, the Chairman of the Audit Committee receives an annual fee of $5,000. No compensation is expected to be paid to directors who are “interested persons” with respect to us, as such term is defined in Section  2(a)(19) of the 1940 Act.

ITEM 7. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTORS INDEPENDENCE

We have entered into or intend to enter into a number of business relationships with affiliated or related parties, including the following:

 

   

We have entered into an Investment Advisory Agreement with CGMSIM.

 

   

We have entered into a Placement Agent Agreement with TCG Securities, L.L.C., a licensed broker-dealer and an affiliate of CGMSIM, in connection with the Private Offering, pursuant to which TCG Securities, L.L.C. will receive a placement fee from certain investors in Carlyle GMS Finance, some or all of which fee TCG Securities, L.L.C. may pay to other broker-dealers for their assistance in sourcing qualified investors.

 

   

CGMSFA, an affiliate of CGMSIM, will provide us with the office facilities and administrative services necessary to conduct day-to-day operations pursuant to the Administration Agreement which we have entered into. We will reimburse CGMSFA for its costs and expenses and our allocable portion of overhead incurred by it in performing its obligations under the Administration Agreement, including compensation paid to or compensatory distributions received by our officers (including our Chief Compliance Officer and Chief Financial Officer) and any of their respective staff who provide services to us, operations staff who provide services to us, and any internal audit staff, to the extent internal audit performs a role in our Sarbanes-Oxley internal control assessment.

 

   

CGMSIM has entered into a personnel agreement with Carlyle Employee Co., an affiliate of CGMSIM, pursuant to which Carlyle Employee Co. has agreed to provide CGMSIM with access to the investment professionals for the CGMSIM Investment Team.

 

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CGMSFA has entered into the Carlyle Sub-Administration Agreement, pursuant to which Carlyle Employee Co. has agreed to provide CGMSFA with access to certain legal, operations, financial, compliance, accounting, internal audit (to the extent internal audit performs a role in our Sarbanes-Oxley internal control assessment), clerical and administrative personnel that presently support the CGMSIM Investment Team. Pursuant to the Carlyle Sub-Administration Agreement, CGMSFA has agreed to reimburse Carlyle Employee Co., for its allocable portion of any personnel, other than legal department personnel, that Carlyle Employee Co. provides for its use.

 

   

CGMSFA has entered into the CELF Sub-Administration Agreement, pursuant to which CELF has agreed to provide CGMSFA with access to compliance personnel, including Matthew Cottrell, our Chief Compliance Officer. Pursuant to the CELF Sub-Administration Agreement, CGMSFA has agreed to reimburse CELF for its allocable portion of the compensatory distributions made and compensation paid to such personnel.

 

   

We have entered into a license agreement with Carlyle Investment Management L.L.C. (“CIM”), which wholly owns our Investment Adviser and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Carlyle, pursuant to which CIM has granted us a non-exclusive, revocable and non-transferable license to use the name and mark “Carlyle.”

In addition, our executive officers and directors, as well as the other current and future principals of our Investment Adviser, CGMSIM, may serve as officers, directors or principals of entities that operate in the same or a related line of business as we do. Currently, certain of our executive officers, as well as the other principals made available to our Investment Adviser, CGMSIM, manage Churchill Cayman. In addition, the Churchill Financial Investment Team and designated GMS investment professionals would likely be responsible for sourcing and managing Middle Market Senior Loans for any Other Middle Market Vehicle. Accordingly, they may have obligations to investors in any Other Middle Market Vehicle, and, until the end of Churchill Cayman’s reinvestment period on July 10, 2014, Churchill Cayman, the fulfillment of which obligations might not be in the best interests of us or our stockholders.

In addition, we note that any affiliated investment vehicle currently existing, or formed in the future, and managed by our Investment Adviser or its affiliates, including Churchill Financial or Carlyle, may, notwithstanding different stated investment objectives, have overlapping investment objectives with our own and, accordingly, may invest in asset classes similar to those targeted by us. As a result, we may not necessarily be aware of or have the opportunity to pursue every potential Middle Market Senior Loans opportunity available to Carlyle. As a result, we may be denied the opportunity to participate in investments that are also suitable for other investment funds managed by CGMSIM or an investment manager affiliated with CGMSIM, including Churchill Financial or Carlyle.

Carlyle and its affiliates sponsor several investment funds, accounts and other similar arrangements with strategies overlapping with our strategy, including, without limitation, Churchill Cayman, Carlyle Energy Mezzanine Opportunities Fund and successor funds, Carlyle Strategic Partners series of funds, and for the remaining uncalled capital of its second fund, the Carlyle Mezzanine Partners series of funds, as well as carry funds, hedge funds, managed accounts and structured credit CLO funds. The terms of certain of these investment funds, accounts or other similar arrangements require Carlyle to allocate investment opportunities to such investment funds in priority to allocations to other vehicles, such as us. For example, during the commitment period for Carlyle Energy Mezzanine Opportunities Fund and successor funds, Carlyle is generally obligated to offer any investment opportunities in mezzanine debt investments in energy companies and projects to that fund. As a result, there will likely be circumstances where investments appropriate for us are instead allocated, in whole or in part, to such other investment funds, accounts or other similar arrangements. Where Carlyle otherwise has discretion to allocate investment opportunities among various funds, accounts and other similar arrangements, it should be noted that Carlyle may determine to allocate such investment opportunities away from us. Apart from the circumstances described above, Carlyle will be presented with investment opportunities that generally fall within our investment objective and other Carlyle investment funds or managed accounts, whether

 

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focused on a debt strategy or otherwise, and in such circumstances Carlyle will allocate such opportunities among us and such other Carlyle funds on a basis that Carlyle determines to be fair and reasonable taking into account the sourcing of the transaction, the nature of the investment focus of each such other Carlyle investment fund, the relative amounts of capital available for investment, the nature and extent of involvement in the transaction on the part of the respective teams of investment professionals, any requirements contained in the partnership agreements of such other Carlyle funds and other considerations deemed relevant by Carlyle. Consistent with the foregoing, Carlyle expects that other Carlyle investment funds will make investments in the debt of private companies. In addition, Carlyle expects that we will make investments in geographic regions in which other Carlyle investment funds have been or may be specifically organized to invest.

In addition, Carlyle may determine to form Other Middle Market Vehicles. If this were to occur, substantially all investment opportunities that fall within an Other Middle Market Vehicle’s investment objective may also fall within our investment objective. In a more limited number of situations, Churchill Cayman may have overlapping investment opportunities with us prior to the end of Churchill Cayman’s reinvestment period on July 10, 2014. We would generally be required to apply for exemptive relief from the SEC to co-invest in Middle Market Senior Loans with any Other Middle Market Vehicle. Any such exemptive relief, if issued, will be subject to certain terms and conditions and there can be no assurance that such relief will be granted by the SEC. We do not intend to apply for exemptive relief to co-invest with Churchill Cayman. Instead, prior to the end of Churchill Cayman’s reinvestment period on July 10, 2014 and in the absence of the above-mentioned exemptive relief, in the more limited number of situations where such an investment opportunity represents an Overlapping Opportunity for Churchill Cayman, we and any Other Middle Market Vehicle would alternate investment in Overlapping Opportunities with Churchill Cayman. While Carlyle and CGMSIM will seek to implement this allocation process in a fair and equitable manner under the particular circumstances, there can be no assurance that it will result in equivalent allocation of or participation in investment opportunities or equivalent performance of investments allocated to us as compared to the other entities.

In addition, subject to applicable law, we or CGMSIM may, in our or its sole discretion, as the case may be, decide to offer some or all of our stockholders (separately from or in addition to any other persons, including other non-affiliated lenders in the market) opportunities to co-invest with us in allocations that may or may not correspond to such stockholders’ pro rata interests in us. In determining such allocations, we or CGMSIM may take into account any facts or circumstances deemed appropriate (including, for example, the financial resources, sophistication, experience or expertise of a prospective co-investor, Carlyle’s existing relationships or prior experience with a prospective co-investor or possible benefits to Carlyle or an agreement with the prospective co-investor). Such stockholders, including stockholders that own more than 5% of our common stock, and/or other persons may make such co-investments on terms and conditions that are materially different from each other and our investment, and these terms may be more or less favorable to such stockholders and/or other persons, including with respect to fees, expenses, exit rights and other material terms. Neither we nor CGMSIM is under any obligation to provide co-investment opportunities to our stockholders generally, and any such co-investment opportunity may be offered to some and not to other stockholders. In certain circumstances, these co-investments may be made only if approved in advance by the “required majority” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of our Board of Directors and in other circumstances only if we receive an order from the SEC permitting us to do so. There can be no assurance that such an order will be obtained.

Our affiliate, Carlyle, through CGMSIM, considers its “One Carlyle” philosophy and the ability of its professionals to communicate and collaborate across funds, industries and geographies one of its significant competitive strengths. Carlyle has expanded its platform into various lines of business in the alternative asset management industry, which we believe can lead to attractive investment opportunities for us. Pursuant to an allocation policy, through CGMSIM, we will leverage Carlyle’s expanded platform to find investment opportunities that meet our investment strategy. However, we will also be subject to the internal allocation policies of Carlyle and its affiliates, which may result in certain investment opportunities that are attractive to us being allocated to other funds managed by affiliates of Carlyle. Our communications with Carlyle corporate private equity, real asset and fund-of-funds investment professionals are subject to certain restrictions as set forth

 

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in its information barrier policy. In that regard, it is not generally expected the investment personnel involved in our day-to-day affairs will discuss any issuer-specific information with other members of Carlyle outside the GMS group, such as the personnel devoted to Carlyle’s buyout and real estate activities.

In the ordinary course of business, we may enter into transactions with affiliates and portfolio companies that may be considered related party transactions. In order to ensure that we do not engage in any prohibited transactions with any persons affiliated with us, , we have implemented certain policies and procedures whereby our executive officers screen each of our transactions for any possible affiliations between the proposed portfolio investment, us, companies controlled by us, stockholders that own more than 5% of us and our employees and directors. We will not enter into any agreements unless and until we are satisfied that doing so will not raise concerns under the 1940 Act or, if such concerns exist, we have taken appropriate actions to seek Board review and approval or exemptive relief for such transaction. Our Board of Directors will review these procedures on an annual basis.

From time to time the Adviser, the Administrator, their respective affiliates, may pay third-party providers to us of goods or services. We will subsequently reimburse the Adviser, the Administrator or such affiliates thereof for any such amounts paid on our behalf.

For information regarding the independence of our directors, seeItem 5. Directors and Executive Officers.

ITEM 8. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Neither we nor our Adviser or our Administrator is currently subject to any material legal proceedings, nor, to our knowledge, is any material legal proceeding threatened against us, or against our Adviser or our Administrator. From time to time, we, our Adviser or our Administrator may be a party to certain legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business, including proceedings relating to the enforcement of our rights under contracts with our portfolio companies. Our businesses are also subject to extensive regulation, which may result in regulatory proceedings against us. While the outcome of these legal proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty, we do not expect that these proceedings will have a material effect upon our financial condition or results of operations.

Legal Proceedings Involving Carlyle

In September 2006 and March 2009, Carlyle received requests for certain documents and other information from the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”) in connection with the DOJ’s investigation of global alternative asset firms to determine whether they have engaged in conduct prohibited by U.S. antitrust laws. Carlyle fully cooperated with the DOJ’s investigation and is currently unable to anticipate what impact it may have on Carlyle or us.

On February 14, 2008, a private class-action lawsuit challenging “club” bids and other alleged anti-competitive business practices was filed in the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts (Police and Fire Retirement System of the City of Detroit v. Apollo Global Management, LLC). The complaint alleges, among other things, that certain global alternative asset firms, including Carlyle, violated Section 1 of the Sherman Act by forming multi-sponsor consortiums for the purpose of bidding collectively in company buyout auctions in certain going private transactions, which the plaintiffs allege constitutes a “conspiracy in restraint of trade.” Count One of the complaint alleges an overarching conspiracy relating to certain large buyout transactions. Count Two of the complaint alleges a conspiracy with regard to the buyout of Healthcare Corporation of America. The plaintiffs seek damages as provided for in Section 4 of the Clayton Act and injunction against such conduct in restraint of trade in the future. The defendants moved for summary judgment on both counts. On March 13, 2013, the Court ruled that plaintiffs could proceed on Count One solely on the basis of an alleged conspiracy to refrain from “jumping” announced proprietary (i.e., non-auction) deals. The Court stated that it will entertain further summary judgment motions by individual defendants as to their participation in the more narrowly-defined alleged conspiracy. The Court also denied summary judgment as to Count Two. The Court has not set a schedule for class certification proceedings.

 

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Along with many other companies and individuals in the financial sector, Carlyle and Carlyle Mezzanine Partners are named as defendants in Foy v. Austin Capital, a case filed in June 2009, pending in the State of New Mexico’s First Judicial District Court, County of Santa Fe, which purports to be a qui tam suit on behalf of the State of New Mexico. The suit alleges that investment decisions by New Mexico public investment funds were improperly influenced by campaign contributions and payments to politically connected placement agents. The plaintiffs seek, among other things, actual damages, actual damages for lost income, rescission of the investment transactions described in the complaint and disgorgement of all fees received. In May 2011, the Attorney General of New Mexico moved to dismiss certain defendants including Carlyle and Carlyle Mezzanine Partners on the ground that separate civil litigation by the Attorney General is a more effective means to seek recovery for the State from these defendants. The Attorney General has brought two civil actions against certain of those defendants, not including the Carlyle defendants. The Attorney General has stated that its investigation is continuing and it may bring additional civil actions.

Carlyle Capital Corporation Limited (“CCC”) was a fund sponsored by Carlyle that invested in AAA-rated residential mortgage backed securities on a highly leveraged basis. In March of 2008, amidst turmoil throughout the mortgage markets and money markets, CCC filed for insolvency protection in Guernsey. Several different lawsuits, described below, developed from the CCC insolvency.

First, on July 13, 2009, a former shareholder of CCC, claiming to have lost $20.0 million, filed a claim against CCC, Carlyle and certain of its affiliates and one of its officers (Huffington v. TC Group L.L.C. et al.) alleging violations of Massachusetts “blue sky” law provisions relating to material misrepresentations and omissions allegedly made during and after the marketing of CCC. The plaintiff seeks treble damages, interest, expenses and attorney’s fees and to have the subscription agreement deemed null and void and a full refund of the investment. In March 2011, the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts dismissed the plaintiff’s complaint on the grounds that it should have been filed in Delaware instead of Massachusetts based on the forum selection provision in the plaintiff’s subscription agreement. The plaintiff subsequently filed a notice of appeal to the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. The plaintiff lost his appeal to the First Circuit and has filed a new claim in Delaware State Court. The Delaware State Court granted in part and denied in part defendants’ motion to dismiss, which was converted to a motion for summary judgment. The plaintiff has since dismissed the claim without any monetary compensation, in exchange for Carlyle’s dismissal of its counterclaim against him for violation of the forum selection clause.

Second, in November 2009, another CCC investor, National Industries Group (“National Industries”) instituted legal proceedings on similar grounds in Kuwait’s Court of First Instance (National Industries v. Carlyle Group) seeking to recover losses incurred in connection with an investment in CCC. In July 2011, the Delaware Court of Chancery issued a decision restraining the plaintiff from proceeding in Kuwait against Carlyle Investment Management L.L.C. or TC Group, L.L.C., based on the forum selection clause in National Industries’ subscription agreement, which provided for exclusive jurisdiction in the Delaware courts. In September 2011, National Industries reissued its complaint in Kuwait naming CCC only, and reissued its complaint in January 2012 joining Carlyle Investment Management L.L.C. as a defendant. In August 2012, National Industries filed a motion to vacate the Delaware Court of Chancery’s decision. Carlyle successfully opposed that motion and the Court’s injunction remains in effect. In November 2012, National Industries filed a notice to appeal.

Third, the Guernsey liquidators who took control of CCC in March 2008 filed four suits on July 7, 2010 against Carlyle, certain of its affiliates and the former directors of CCC in the Delaware Chancery Court, the Royal Court of Guernsey, the Superior Court of the District of Columbia and the Supreme Court of New York, New York County, (Carlyle Capital Corporation Limited v. Conway et al.) seeking $1.0 billion in damages. They allege that Carlyle and the CCC board of directors were negligent, grossly negligent or willfully mismanaged the CCC investment program and breached certain fiduciary duties allegedly owed to CCC and its shareholders. The liquidators further allege (among other things) that the directors and Carlyle put the interests of Carlyle ahead of the interests of CCC and its shareholders and gave priority to preserving and enhancing Carlyle’s reputation and its “brand” over the best interests of CCC. In July 2011, the Royal Court of Guernsey held that the case should be

 

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litigated in Delaware pursuant to the exclusive jurisdiction clause in the investment management agreement. That ruling was appealed by the liquidators, and in February 2012 was reversed by the Guernsey Court of Appeal, which held that the case should proceed in Guernsey. Defendants’ attempt to appeal to the Privy Council was unsuccessful and the plaintiffs’ case in proceeding in Guernsey. In addition, the liquidators’ lawsuits in New York and the District of Columbia were dismissed in December 2011 without prejudice.

Fourth, on June 21, 2011, August 24, 2011, and September 1, 2011, three putative shareholder class actions were filed against Carlyle, certain of its affiliates and former directors of CCC alleging that the fund offering materials and various public disclosures were materially misleading or omitted material information. Two of the shareholder class actions, (Phelps v. Stomber, et al. and Glaubach v. Carlyle Capital Corporation Limited, et al.), were filed in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Phelps v. Stomber, et al. was also filed in the Supreme Court of New York, New York County and was subsequently removed to the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. The two original D.C. cases were consolidated into one case, under the caption of Phelps v. Stomber, and the Phelps named plaintiffs were designated “lead plaintiffs” by the court. The New York case was transferred to the D.C. federal court and the plaintiffs requested that it be consolidated with the other two D.C. actions. The plaintiffs were seeking all compensatory damages sustained as a result of the alleged misrepresentations, costs and expenses, as well as reasonable attorney’s fees. On August 13, 2012, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia dismissed both the D.C. and New York class actions. The plaintiffs have moved for leave to amend their compliant and/or for amendment of the Court’s decision, and the defendants have opposed these motions. The plaintiffs also have noticed an appeal to the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, but the appeal is being held in abeyance until the District Court resolves pending motions.

ITEM 9. MARKET PRICE OF AND DIVIDENDS ON THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

Market Information

Until the completion of a Qualified IPO, our outstanding common stock will be offered and sold in transactions exempt from registration under the Securities Act under Section 4(2) and Regulation D, as well as under Regulation S under the Securities Act. SeeItem 10. Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities” for more information. There is no public market for our common stock currently, nor can we give any assurance that one will develop.

Because shares of our common stock are being acquired by investors in one or more transactions “not involving a public offering,” they are “restricted securities” and may be required to be held indefinitely. Our common shares may not be sold, transferred, assigned, pledged or otherwise disposed of unless (i) our consent is granted, and (ii) the common shares are registered under applicable securities laws or specifically exempted from registration (in which case the stockholder may, at our option, be required to provide us with a legal opinion, in form and substance satisfactory to us, that registration is not required). Accordingly, an investor must be willing to bear the economic risk of investment in the common shares until we are liquidated. No sale, transfer, assignment, pledge or other disposition, whether voluntary or involuntary, of the common shares may be made except by registration of the transfer on our books. Each transferee will be required to execute an instrument agreeing to be bound by these restrictions and the other restrictions imposed on the common shares and to execute such other instruments or certifications as are reasonably required by us.

Holders

Please see “Item 4. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” for disclosure regarding the holders of our common stock.

 

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Distribution Policy

To the extent that we have income available, we intend to distribute quarterly dividends to our stockholders, beginning after our first full quarter following the completion of the Initial Drawdown. The amount of our dividends, if any, will be determined by our Board of Directors. Any dividends to our stockholders will be declared out of assets legally available for distribution. We anticipate that our distributions will generally be paid from post-offering taxable earnings, including interest and capital gains generated by our investment portfolio, and any other income, including any other fees (other than fees for providing managerial assistance), such as commitment, origination, structuring, diligence and consulting fees or other fees, that we receive from portfolio companies. However, if we do not generate sufficient taxable earnings during a year, all or part of a distribution may constitute a return of capital. The specific tax characteristics of our dividends and other distributions will be reported to stockholders after the end of each calendar year.

We intend to elect to be treated, and intend to qualify annually thereafter, as a RIC commencing with our 2013 taxable year. To maintain our qualification as a RIC, we must, among other things, distribute at least 90% of our ordinary income and realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses, if any, to our stockholders on an annual basis. In order to avoid certain excise taxes imposed on RICs, we intend to distribute during each calendar year an amount at least equal to the sum of: (1) 98% of our ordinary income for the calendar year; (2) 98.2% of our capital gain net income (both long-term and short-term) for the one-year period ending on October 31 of the calendar year; and, (3) any ordinary income and capital gain net income (both long-term and short-term) for preceding years that were not distributed during such years and on which we paid no U.S. federal income tax. In addition, although we currently intend to distribute realized net capital gains (i.e., net long term capital gains in excess of short term capital losses), if any, at least annually, we may in the future decide to retain such capital gains for investment, pay U.S. federal income tax on such amounts at regular corporate tax rates, and elect to treat such gains as deemed distributions to stockholders. If this happens, stockholders will be treated as if they had received an actual distribution of the capital gains we retain and reinvested the net after-tax proceeds in us. In this situation, stockholders would be eligible to claim a tax credit (or, in certain circumstances, a tax refund) equal to their allocable share of the tax we paid on the capital gains deemed distributed. See “Item 1. Business — Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.” We can offer no assurance that we will achieve results that will permit the payment of any cash distributions and, to the extent that we issue senior securities, we will be prohibited from making distributions if doing so causes us to fail to maintain the asset coverage ratios stipulated by the 1940 Act or if distributions are limited by the terms of any of our borrowings.

We intend to make distributions in additional shares of our common stock unless a stockholder elects to receive dividends and/or long-term capital gains distributions in cash. Although distributions paid in the form of additional shares of our common stock will generally be subject to U.S. federal, state and local taxes in the same manner as cash distributions, investors receiving distributions paid in the form of additional shares of our common stock would not receive any corresponding cash distributions with which to pay any such applicable taxes. See “— Dividend Reinvestment Plan,” below. Stockholders who hold shares of our common stock in the name of a broker or financial intermediary should contact the broker or financial intermediary regarding an election to receive distributions in cash. We can offer no assurance that we will achieve results that will permit the payment of any cash distributions and, if we issue senior securities, we will be prohibited from making distributions if doing so causes us to fail to maintain the asset coverage ratios stipulated by the 1940 Act or if distributions are limited by the terms of any of our borrowings.

Dividend Reinvestment Plan

We have adopted a dividend reinvestment plan that provides for reinvestment of our dividends and other distributions on behalf of our stockholders, unless a stockholder elects to receive cash as provided below. As a result of adopting such a plan, if our Board of Directors authorizes, and we declare, a cash dividend or distribution, our stockholders who have not opted out of our dividend reinvestment plan will have their cash dividends or distributions automatically reinvested in additional shares of our common stock, rather than receiving cash.

 

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No action will be required on the part of a registered stockholder to have his cash dividends and distributions reinvested in shares of our common stock. A registered stockholder could instead elect to receive a dividend or distribution in cash by notifying the plan administrator, which is also our transfer agent and registrar, in writing, so that such notice is received by the plan administrator no later than the record date for such dividend or distribution. The plan administrator will set up an account for shares of our common stock acquired through the plan for each stockholder who does not elect to receive dividends and distributions in cash and hold such shares in non-certificated form. Those stockholders whose shares are held by a broker or other financial intermediary could receive dividends and distributions in cash by notifying their broker or other financial intermediary of their election.

Stockholders who receive dividends and distributions in the form of stock are generally subject to the same U.S. federal, state and local tax consequences as are stockholders who elect to receive their dividends and distributions in cash. However, since a participating stockholder’s cash dividends and distributions will be reinvested in our common stock, such stockholder will not receive cash with which to pay applicable taxes on reinvested dividends and distributions. A stockholder’s basis for determining gain or loss upon the sale of stock received in a dividend or distribution from us will generally be equal to the cash that would have been received if the stockholder had received the dividend or distribution in cash, unless we were to issue new shares that are trading at or above net asset value, in which case, the stockholder’s basis in the new shares will generally be equal to their fair market value. Any stock received in a dividend or distribution will have a new holding period for tax purposes commencing on the day following the day on which the shares are credited to the U.S. stockholder’s account.

ITEM 10. RECENT SALES OF UNREGISTERED SECURITIES

In conjunction with our formation, Carlyle GMS Investment Management purchased 100 shares of our common stock at a purchase price of $20.00 per share. These shares were issued and sold in reliance upon the available exemptions from registration requirements of Section 4(2) of the Securities Act.

ITEM 11. DESCRIPTION OF REGISTRANT’S SECURITIES TO BE REGISTERED

The following description is based on relevant portions of the Maryland General Corporation Law and on our charter and bylaws. This summary possesses the provisions deemed to be material, but is not necessarily complete.

Stock

Our authorized stock consists of 200,000,000 shares, par value $0.01 per share, all of which are initially designated as common stock. There are no outstanding options or warrants to purchase our stock. No stock has been authorized for issuance under any equity compensation plans. Under Maryland law, our stockholders generally are not personally liable for our debts or obligations.

The following are our outstanding classes of securities as of January 31, 2013:

 

         (1)

Title of Class

  

(2)

Amount

Authorized

    

(3)

Amount Held

by

Us or for

Our Account

    

(4)

Amount

Outstanding

Exclusive of

Amounts Shown

Under(3)

 

Common stock

     200,000,000         —          100   

Under our charter our Board of Directors is authorized to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of stock into other classes or series of stock without obtaining stockholder approval. As permitted by the Maryland General Corporation Law, our charter provides that the Board of Directors, without any action by our stockholders, may amend the charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that we have authority to issue.

 

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Common Stock

All shares of our common stock have equal rights as to earnings, assets, voting, and dividends and, when they are issued, will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable. Distributions may be paid to the holders of our common stock if, as and when authorized by our Board of Directors and declared by us out of assets legally available therefor. Shares of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion or redemption rights and are freely transferable, except where their transfer is restricted by federal and state securities laws or by contract. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, each share of our common stock would be entitled to share ratably in all of our assets that are legally available for distribution after we pay all debts and other liabilities and subject to any preferential rights of holders of our preferred stock, if any preferred stock is outstanding at such time. Each share of our common stock is entitled to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors. Except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of our common stock will possess exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which means that holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock can elect all of our directors, and holders of less than a majority of such shares will be unable to elect any director.

Preferred Stock

Our charter authorizes our Board of Directors to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of stock into other classes or series of stock, including preferred stock. The cost of any such reclassification would be borne by our existing common stockholders. Prior to the issuance of shares of each class or series, the Board of Directors is required by Maryland law and by our charter to set the terms, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption for each class or series. Thus, the Board of Directors could authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock with terms and conditions which could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or otherwise be in their best interest. However, that issuance of preferred stock must comply with the requirements of the 1940 Act. The 1940 Act requires, among other things, that (1) immediately after issuance and before any dividend or other distribution is made with respect to our common stock and before any purchase of common stock is made, such preferred stock together with all other senior securities must not exceed an amount equal to 50% of our total assets after deducting the amount of such dividend, distribution or purchase price, as the case may be, and (2) the holders of shares of preferred stock, if any are issued, must be entitled as a class to elect two directors at all times and to elect a majority of the directors if dividends on such preferred stock are in arrears by two full years or more. Certain matters under the 1940 Act require the separate vote of the holders of any issued and outstanding preferred stock. For example, holders of preferred stock would vote separately from the holders of common stock on a proposal to cease operations as a BDC. We believe that the availability for issuance of preferred stock will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring future financings and acquisitions. However, we do not currently have any plans to issue preferred stock.

Limitation on Liability of Directors and Officers; Indemnification and Advance of Expenses

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from (a) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (b) active and deliberate dishonesty established by a final judgment as being material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision which eliminates directors’ and officers’ liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, subject to the requirements of the 1940 Act.

Our charter authorizes us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law and subject to the requirements of the 1940 Act, to indemnify any present or former director or officer of the corporation or any individual who, while serving as our director or officer and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other

 

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enterprise as a director, officer, partner or trustee, from and against any claim or liability to which that person may become subject or which that person may incur by reason of his or her service in any such capacity and to pay or reimburse their reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding. Our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law and subject to the requirements of the 1940 Act, to indemnify any present or former director or officer or any individual who, while serving as our director or officer and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise as a director, officer, partner, trustee, member or manager and who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity from and against any claim or liability to which that person may become subject or which that person may incur by reason of his or her service in any such capacity and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding without requiring a preliminary determination of his or her ultimate entitlement to indemnification. The charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of us in any of the capacities described above and any of our employees or agents or any employees or agents of our predecessor. In accordance with the 1940 Act, we will not indemnify any person for any liability to which such person would be subject by reason of such person’s willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of his or her office.

Maryland law requires a corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. Maryland law permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that (a) the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (1) was committed in bad faith or (2) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty, (b) the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services or (c) in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful. However, under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that a personal benefit was improperly received unless, in either case a court orders indemnification, and then only for expenses. In addition, Maryland law permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer in advance of final disposition of a proceeding upon the corporation’s receipt of (a) a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation and (b) a written undertaking by him or her or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the standard of conduct was not met.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers that will provide the maximum indemnification permitted under Maryland law and the 1940 Act.

Certain Provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law and Our Charter and Bylaws

The Maryland General Corporation Law and our charter and bylaws contain provisions that could make it more difficult for a potential acquiror to acquire us by means of a tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. These provisions are expected to discourage certain coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids and to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate first with our Board of Directors. We believe that the benefits of these provisions outweigh the potential disadvantages of discouraging any such acquisition proposals because, among other things, the negotiation of such proposals may improve their terms.

 

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Classified Board of Directors

Our Board of Directors will be divided into three classes of directors serving staggered three-year terms. The initial terms of the first, second and third classes will expire in 2014, 2015 and 2016, respectively, and in each case, those directors will serve until their successors are duly elected and qualify. Beginning in 2014, upon expiration of their current terms, directors of each class will be elected to serve for three-year terms and until their successors are duly elected and qualify and each year one class of directors will be elected by the stockholders. A staggered board may render a change in control of us or removal of our incumbent management more difficult. We believe, however, that the longer time required to elect a majority of our Board of Directors will help to ensure the continuity and stability of our management and policies.

Election of Directors

As permitted by our charter, our bylaws provide that the affirmative vote of the holders of a plurality of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote in the election of directors cast at a meeting of stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present will be required to elect a director. Pursuant to our charter and bylaws our Board of Directors may amend the bylaws to alter the vote required to elect directors.

Number of Directors; Vacancies; Removal

Our charter provides that the number of directors will be increased or decreased only by the Board of Directors in accordance with our bylaws. Our bylaws provide that a majority of our entire Board of Directors may at any time increase or decrease the number of directors. However, the number of directors may never be less than one nor more than twelve unless our bylaws are amended in which case we may have more than twelve directors but never less than one. Our charter provides that, at such time as we have at least three independent directors and our common stock is registered under the Exchange Act, we elect to be subject to the provision of Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the Maryland General Corporation Law regarding the filling of vacancies on the Board of Directors. Accordingly, at such time, except as may be provided by the Board of Directors in setting the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, any and all vacancies on the Board of Directors may be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors in office, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and any director elected to fill a vacancy will serve for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is duly elected and qualifies, subject to any applicable requirements of the 1940 Act.

Our charter provides that a director may be removed only for cause, as defined in our charter, and then only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of directors.

Action by Stockholders

Under the Maryland General Corporation Law, stockholder action can be taken only at an annual or special meeting of stockholders or (unless the charter provides for stockholder action by less than unanimous written consent, which our charter does not) by unanimous written consent in lieu of a meeting. These provisions, combined with the requirements of our bylaws regarding the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting of stockholders discussed below, may have the effect of delaying consideration of a stockholder proposal until the next annual meeting.

Advance Notice Provisions for Stockholder Nominations and Stockholder Proposals

Our bylaws provide that with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (1) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (2) by the Board of Directors or (3) by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record both at the time of giving notice, as provided by the bylaws, and at the time of the annual meeting and who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has complied with the advance notice procedures of

 

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our bylaws. With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of the meeting may be brought before the meeting. Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors at a special meeting may be made only (1) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (2) by the Board of Directors or (3) provided that the Board of Directors has determined that directors will be elected at the meeting, by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record both at the time of giving notice, as provided by the bylaws, and at the time of the special meeting and who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has complied with the advance notice provisions of the bylaws.

The purpose of requiring stockholders to give us advance notice of nominations and other business is to afford our Board of Directors a meaningful opportunity to consider the qualifications of the proposed nominees and the advisability of any other proposed business and, to the extent deemed necessary or desirable by our Board of Directors, to inform stockholders and make recommendations about such qualifications or business, as well as to provide a more orderly procedure for conducting meetings of stockholders. Although our bylaws do not give our Board of Directors any power to disapprove stockholder nominations for the election of directors or proposals recommending certain action, they may have the effect of precluding a contest for the election of directors or the consideration of stockholder proposals if proper procedures are not followed and of discouraging or deterring a third party from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect its own slate of directors or to approve its own proposal without regard to whether consideration of such nominees or proposals might be harmful or beneficial to us and our stockholders.

Calling of Special Meetings of Stockholders

Our bylaws provide that special meetings of stockholders may be called by a majority of our Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board and certain of our officers. Additionally, our bylaws provide that, subject to the satisfaction of certain procedural and informational requirements by the stockholders requesting the meeting, a special meeting of stockholders will be called by the Secretary of the corporation upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at such meeting.

Approval of Extraordinary Corporate Action; Amendment of Charter and Bylaws

Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, sell all or substantially all of its assets, engage in a share exchange or engage in similar transactions outside the ordinary course of business, unless approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, a Maryland corporation may provide in its charter for approval of these matters by a lesser percentage, but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our charter generally provides for approval of charter amendments and extraordinary transactions by the stockholders entitled to cast at least a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our charter also provides that the following matters require the approval of stockholders entitled to cast at least 80% of the votes entitled to be cast: (i) certain charter amendments; (ii) any proposal for our conversion, whether by merger or otherwise, from a closed-end company to an open-end company; (iii) any proposal for our liquidation or dissolution; or (iv) any proposal regarding a merger, consolidation, share exchange or sale or exchange of all or substantially all of our assets that the Maryland General Corporation Law requires to be approved by our stockholders. However, if such amendment or proposal is approved by a majority of our continuing directors (in addition to approval by our Board of Directors), such amendment or proposal may be approved by a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on such a matter. The “continuing directors” are defined in our charter as (1) our current directors, (2) those directors whose nomination for election by the stockholders or whose election by the directors to fill vacancies is approved by a majority of our current directors then on the Board of Directors or (3) any successor directors whose nomination for election by the stockholders or whose election by the directors to fill vacancies is approved by a majority of continuing directors or the successor continuing directors then in office.

Our charter and bylaws provide that the Board of Directors will have the exclusive power to make, alter, amend or repeal any provision of our bylaws.

 

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No Appraisal Rights

Except with respect to appraisal rights arising in connection with the Control Share Act discussed below, as permitted by the Maryland General Corporation Law, our charter provides that stockholders will not be entitled to exercise appraisal rights unless a majority of the Board of Directors shall determine such rights apply.

Control Share Acquisitions

The Maryland General Corporation Law, pursuant to the Control Shares Act, provides that control shares of a Maryland corporation acquired in a control share acquisition have no voting rights except to the extent approved by a vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Shares owned by the acquiror, by officers or by directors who are employees of the corporation are excluded from shares entitled to vote on the matter. Control shares are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other shares of stock owned by the acquiror or in respect of which the acquiror is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquiror to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:

 

   

one-tenth or more but less than one-third;

 

   

one-third or more but less than a majority; or

 

   

a majority or more of all voting power.

The requisite stockholder approval must be obtained each time an acquiror crosses one of the thresholds of voting power set forth above. Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A control share acquisition means the acquisition of control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition may compel the Board of Directors of the corporation to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. The right to compel the calling of a special meeting is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including an undertaking to pay the expenses of the meeting. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the statute, then the corporation may redeem for fair value any or all of the control shares, except those for which voting rights have previously been approved. The right of the corporation to redeem control shares is subject to certain conditions and limitations, including, as provided in our bylaws, compliance with the 1940 Act. Fair value is determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquiror or of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of the shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquiror becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquiror in the control share acquisition.

The Control Share Act does not apply (a) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (b) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation. Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the Control Share Act any and all acquisitions by any person of our shares of stock. There can be no assurance that such provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future. However, we will amend our bylaws to be subject to the Control Share Act only if the Board of Directors determines that it would be in our best interests and if the SEC staff does not object to our determination that our being subject to the Control Share Act does not conflict with the 1940 Act. The SEC staff has issued informal guidance setting forth its position that certain provisions of the Control Share Act would, if implemented, violate Section 18(i) of the 1940 Act.

 

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Business Combinations

Under Maryland law, “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder (the “Business Combination Act”). These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. An interested stockholder is defined as:

 

   

any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock; or

 

   

an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding voting stock of the corporation.

A person is not an interested stockholder under this statute if the Board of Directors approved in advance the transaction by which the stockholder otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. However, in approving a transaction, the Board of Directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by the board.

After the five-year prohibition, any business combination between the Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder generally must be recommended by the Board of Directors of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:

 

   

80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation; and

 

   

two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom or with whose affiliate the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.

These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price, as defined under Maryland law, for their shares in the form of cash or other consideration in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.

The statute permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are exempted by the Board of Directors before the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Our Board of Directors has adopted a resolution that any business combination between us and any other person is exempted from the provisions of the Business Combination Act, provided that the business combination is first approved by the Board of Directors, including a majority of the directors who are not interested persons (as defined in the 1940 Act). This resolution may be altered or repealed in whole or in part at any time; however, our Board of Directors will adopt resolutions so as to make us subject to the provisions of the Business Combination Act only if the Board of Directors determines that it would be in our best interests and if the SEC staff does not object to our determination that our being subject to the Business Combination Act does not conflict with the 1940 Act. If this resolution is repealed, or the Board of Directors does not otherwise approve a business combination, the statute may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer.

Conflict with 1940 Act

Our bylaws provide that, if and to the extent that any provision of the Maryland General Corporation Law, including the Control Share Act (if we amend our bylaws to be subject to such Act) and the Business Combination Act, or any provision of our charter or bylaws conflicts with any provision of the 1940 Act, the applicable provision of the 1940 Act will control.

 

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Exclusive Forum

Our charter and bylaws provide that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of the Company to the Company or the Company’s stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Maryland General Corporation Law, the charter or bylaws or the securities, antifraud, unfair trade practices or similar laws of any international, national, state, provincial, territorial, local or other governmental or regulatory authority, including, in each case, the applicable rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, or (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall be a federal or state court located in the state of Delaware, provided that to the extent the appropriate court located in the state of Delaware determines that it does not have jurisdiction over such action, then the sole and exclusive forum shall be any federal or state court located in the state of Maryland. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of capital stock of the Company shall be deemed, to the fullest extent permitted by law, to have notice of and consented to these exclusive forum provisions and to have irrevocably submitted to, and waived any objection to, the exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in connection with any such action or proceeding and consented to process being served in any such action or proceeding, without limitation, by United States mail addressed to the stockholder at the stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the Company, with postage thereon prepaid.

ITEM 12. INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS

See “Item 11. Description of Registrant’s Securities to be Registered — Limitation on Liability of Directors and Officers; Indemnification and Advance of Expenses.

ITEM 13. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

Set forth below is an index to our audited balance sheet attached to this Registration Statement.

Index to Balance Sheet

Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc.

 

     Page  

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     F-2   

Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2012

     F-3   

Notes to Balance Sheet

     F-4   

ITEM 14. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

There are not and have not been any disagreements between Carlyle GMS Finance and its accountant on any matter of accounting principles, practices, or financial statement disclosure.

ITEM 15. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND EXHIBITS

(a) List separately all financial statements filed

The financial statements attached to this Registration Statement are listed under “Item 13. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

 

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(b) Exhibits

 

  3.1    Articles of Amendment and Restatement
  3.2    Amended and Restated Bylaws
  4.1    Form of Subscription Agreement
10.1    Advisory Agreement
10.2    Administration Agreement
10.3     Form of Indemnification Agreement
21.1*     Subsidiaries of the Registrant

 

* — Previously filed

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

 

CARLYLE GMS FINANCE, INC.
By:  

/s/ Kenneth J. Kencel

 

Kenneth J. Kencel

President

Date: April 11, 2013

 

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INDEX TO BALANCE SHEET

Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc.

 

     Page  

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     F-2   

Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2012

     F-3   

Notes to Balance Sheet

     F-4   

 

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

The Directors and Stockholder

Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc.

We have audited the accompanying balance sheet of Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc. (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2012. This balance sheet is the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on this balance sheet based on our audit.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. We were not engaged to perform an audit of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Our audit included consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit also includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audit of the financial statements provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

In our opinion, the balance sheet referred to above presents fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc. as of December 31, 2012 in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

/s/ Ernst & Young, LLP

January 16, 2013

New York, New York

 

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Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc.

(A Development Stage Company)

Balance Sheet

 

    

As of

December 31, 2012

 

Assets

  

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 2,000   
  

 

 

 

Total Assets

   $ 2,000   

Commitments and Contingencies (Note 3)

     —    

Net Assets

  

Common stock, $0.01 par value; 200,000,000 shares authorized; 100 shares issued and outstanding

   $ 1   

Additional paid-in capital

     1,999   
  

 

 

 

Total Net Assets

   $ 2,000   

Net Asset Value Per Share

   $ 20   

The accompanying notes are an integral part of this Balance Sheet.

 

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Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc.

(A Development Stage Company)

Notes to Balance Sheet

(1) Organization and Basis of Presentation

Organization

Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc. (“Carlyle GMS” or the “Company”) is a Maryland corporation formed on February 8, 2012 structured as an externally managed, non-diversified closed-end investment company. The Company intends to elect to be treated as a business development company (a “BDC”) under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”). In addition, for tax purposes the Company intends to elect to be treated as a “regulated investment company” (a “RIC”) under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. The Company will be externally managed by Carlyle GMS Investment Management L.L.C. (“Adviser”), an investment adviser that is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended. Carlyle GMS Finance Administration, LLC (“Administrator”) will provide the administrative services necessary for the Company to operate. Both the Adviser and Administrator are wholly owned subsidiaries of The Carlyle Group, L.P. (“Carlyle”), a global alternative asset manager.

As of December 31, 2012, no operations other than the sale and issuance of 100 shares of common stock at an aggregate purchase price of $2,000 to the Adviser have occurred.

Business Purpose

The Company was formed primarily to invest in first lien senior secured and unitranche loans (“Middle Market Senior Loans”) made predominately to private U.S. middle market companies that are, in many cases, controlled by private equity firms. The Company expects that between 70% and 80% of the value of its assets will be invested in Middle Market Senior Loans with the balance invested in higher-yielding investments which may include middle market junior loans such as corporate mezzanine loans, equity co-investments, broadly syndicated first lien senior secured loans and second lien loans, high-yield bonds, structured products and/or other opportunistic investments.

Basis of Presentation

The balance sheet has been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

The Company’s first fiscal period is expected to end on December 31, 2013.

Development Stage Company

The Company is a development stage company as defined by ASC 915-10-05, “Development Stage Entity.” The Company is continuing to devote substantially all of its efforts to establishing the business and its planned principal investment operations have not commenced.

No base management or incentive fees will be paid to the Adviser until commencement of investment activities. The base management fee will be calculated and payable quarterly in arrears at an annual rate of 1.50% of gross assets. Prior to the completion of an initial public offering of the Company’s common stock, the Adviser will waive its right to receive one-third (0.50%) of the base management fee. The incentive fee will consist of two parts. The first part will be calculated and payable quarterly in arrears and equals 20% of pre-incentive fee net investment income for the immediately preceding calendar quarter, subject to a preferred return of 1.5% per quarter (6% annualized), or “hurdle,” and a “catch-up” feature. The second part will be determined and payable

 

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in arrears as of the end of each calendar year in an amount equal to 20% of realized capital gains, if any, on a cumulative basis from inception through the end of each calendar year, computed net of all realized capital losses on a cumulative basis and unrealized capital depreciation less the aggregate amount of any previously paid capital gain incentive fees.

(2) Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Use of Estimates

The preparation of the balance sheet in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the balance sheet. Such estimates could differ from those estimates and such differences could be material.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of demand deposits and highly liquid investments (e.g. money market funds, U.S. treasury notes) with original maturities of three months or less. Cash and cash equivalents are carried at cost which approximates fair value. The Company’s cash and cash equivalents are held with financial institutions.

Income Taxes

The Company intends to elect to be treated as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. So long as the Company maintains its status as a RIC, it generally will not pay corporate-level U.S. federal income taxes on any ordinary income or capital gains that it distributes at least annually to its stockholders as dividends. Rather, any tax liability related to income earned by the Company represents obligations of the Company’s investors and will not be reflected in the balance sheet of the Company.

New Accounting Standards

Management does not believe any recently issued, but not yet effective, accounting standards, if currently adopted, would have a material effect on the accompanying balance sheet.

(3) Commitments and Contingencies

Upon receipt of a formal commitment of external capital, the Company will bear the initial organization and offering costs incurred prior to the commencement of investment activities up to a maximum amount of $1.5 million. Any initial organization and offering costs in excess of $1.5 million will be borne by the Adviser. In the event receipt of a formal commitment of external capital does not occur, initial organization and offering costs incurred will be borne by the Adviser. As there has been no formal commitment of external capital as of the date of issuance of this balance sheet, no such costs have been recorded by the Company.

(4) Net Assets

In connection with its formation, the Company has the authority to issue 200,000,000 shares of common stock at $0.01 per share par value.

On March 30, 2012, the Company issued 100 common shares for $2,000 to its Adviser. The Company has not had any other equity transactions.

(5) Subsequent Events

Carlyle GMS Finance SPV LLC (“Borrower Sub”) was formed on January 3, 2013 as a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company. The Company will consolidate the Borrower Sub. The Borrower Sub has received

 

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commitments to enter into a revolving credit facility with various lenders (the “Revolving Credit Facility”). The Company expects the Revolving Credit Facility will become effective shortly after the Company has completed its initial drawdown of capital. The Revolving Credit Facility is expected to initially provide for secured borrowings up to the lesser of $500 million or the amount of capital commitments the Company has received, subject to restrictions imposed on borrowings under the 1940 Act and the existence of adequate collateral to support such borrowings. The Company expects that such borrowings will be used primarily to fund purchases of Middle Market Senior Loans. The Company expects the Revolving Credit Facility to provide for a three-year revolving period (with two one-year extension options, subject to Borrower Sub’s and the lenders’ consent) and have a maturity date six years from the date the facility closes (extendable in connection with an extension of the revolving period). Base rate borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility are expected to bear interest initially at LIBOR plus 2.25% per year. Borrower Sub is also expected to be required to pay a commitment fee of between 0.25% and 1.00% per year depending on the usage of the Revolving Credit Facility. The lenders will have a first lien security interest in all of the assets of Borrower Sub.

The Company has evaluated whether any material events have occurred subsequent to December 31, 2012 (referred to as subsequent events) through January 16, 2013, the date that the balance sheet was available to be issued.

 

F-6

EX-3.1

Exhibit 3.1

CARLYLE GMS FINANCE, INC.

ARTICLES OF AMENDMENT AND RESTATEMENT

FIRST: Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc., a Maryland corporation (the “Corporation”), desires to amend and restate its charter as currently in effect and as hereinafter amended.

SECOND: The following provisions are all the provisions of the charter currently in effect and as hereinafter amended:

ARTICLE I

NAME

The name of the corporation (the “Corporation”) is Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc.

ARTICLE II

PURPOSES

The purposes for which the Corporation is formed are to engage in any lawful act or activity for which corporations may be organized under the general laws of the State of Maryland as now or hereafter in force, including, without limitation or obligation, engaging in business as a business development company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”).

ARTICLE III

RESIDENT AGENT AND PRINCIPAL OFFICE

The name of the resident agent of the Corporation in Maryland is The Corporation Trust Incorporated, whose address is 351 West Camden Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201. The address of the principal office of the Corporation in the State of Maryland is c/o The Corporation Trust Incorporated, 351 West Camden Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201.

ARTICLE IV

PROVISIONS FOR DEFINING, LIMITING

AND REGULATING CERTAIN POWERS OF THE

CORPORATION AND OF THE STOCKHOLDERS AND DIRECTORS

Section 4.1 Number, Vacancies and Classification of Directors. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed under the direction of the board of directors of the Corporation (the “Board”). The number of directors of the Corporation is seven, which number may be increased or decreased only by the Board pursuant to the Bylaws, but shall never be less than the minimum number required by the Maryland General Corporation Law (the “MGCL”). The names of the directors who shall serve until the first annual meeting of stockholders and until their successors are duly elected and qualify are:

Michael J. Petrick


Kenneth J. Kencel

Eliot P.S. Merrill

Nigel D.T. Andrews

William P. Hendry

Michael L. Rankowitz

John G. Nestor

These directors may increase the number of directors and may fill any vacancy, whether resulting from an increase in the number of directors or otherwise, on the Board occurring before the first annual meeting of stockholders in the manner provided in the Bylaws.

The Corporation elects, at such time as the Corporation becomes eligible to make an election provided for under Section 3-802(b) of the MGCL, that, subject to applicable requirements of the 1940 Act and except as may be provided by the Board in setting the terms of any class or series of Preferred Stock (as hereinafter defined), any and all vacancies on the Board may be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors in office, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and any director elected to fill a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which such vacancy occurred and until a successor is duly elected and qualifies.

On the first date on which the Corporation shall have more than one stockholder of record, the directors (other than any director elected solely by holders of one or more classes or series of Preferred Stock in connection with dividend arrearages) shall be classified, with respect to the terms for which they severally hold office, into three classes, as nearly equal in number as possible as determined by the Board, one class to hold office initially for a term expiring at the next succeeding annual meeting of stockholders, another class to hold office initially for a term expiring at the second succeeding annual meeting of stockholders and another class to hold office initially for a term expiring at the third succeeding annual meeting of stockholders, with the members of each class to hold office until their successors are duly elected and qualify. At each annual meeting of the stockholders, the successors to the class of directors whose term expires at such meeting shall be elected to hold office for a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders held in the third year following the year of their election and until their successors are duly elected and qualify.

Section 4.2 Extraordinary Actions. Except as specifically provided in Section 4.9 and in Section 6.2 of the charter of the Corporation (the “Charter”), notwithstanding any provision of law requiring any action to be taken or approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of shares entitled to cast a greater number of votes, any such action shall be effective and valid if declared advisable and approved by the Board and taken or approved by the affirmative vote of holders of shares entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Section 4.3 Election of Directors. Except as otherwise provided in the Bylaws of the Corporation, each director shall be elected by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the shares of stock outstanding and entitled to vote thereon.


Section 4.4 Quorum. The presence in person or by proxy of the holders of shares of stock of the Corporation entitled to cast a majority of the votes entitled to be cast (without regard to class) shall constitute a quorum at any meeting of stockholders, except with respect to any such matter that, under applicable statutes or regulatory requirements or the Charter, requires approval by a separate vote of one or more classes or series of stock, in which case the presence in person or by proxy of the holders of shares entitled to cast a majority of the votes entitled to be cast by such classes or series on such a matter shall constitute a quorum. To the extent permitted by Maryland law as in effect from time to time, the foregoing quorum provision may be changed by the Bylaws.

Section 4.5 Authorization by Board of Stock Issuance. The Board may authorize the issuance from time to time of shares of stock of the Corporation of any class or series, whether now or hereafter authorized, or securities or rights convertible into shares of its stock of any class or series, whether now or hereafter authorized, for such consideration as the Board may deem advisable (or without consideration in the case of a stock split or stock dividend), subject to such restrictions or limitations, if any, as may be set forth in the Bylaws.

Section 4.6 Preemptive Rights. Except as may be provided by the Board in setting the terms of classified or reclassified shares of stock pursuant to Section 5.4 or as may otherwise be provided by contract, no holder of shares of stock of the Corporation shall, as such holder, have any preemptive right to purchase or subscribe for any additional shares of stock of the Corporation or any other security of the Corporation which it may issue or sell.

Section 4.7 Appraisal Rights. No holder of stock of the Corporation shall be entitled to exercise the rights of an objecting stockholder under Title 3, Subtitle 2 of the MGCL or any successor provision thereto unless the Board, upon the affirmative vote of a majority of the entire Board, shall determine that such rights apply, with respect to all or any classes or series of stock, or any proportion of the shares thereof, to a particular transaction or all transactions occurring after the date of such determination in connection with which holders of such shares would otherwise be entitled to exercise such rights.

Section 4.8 Determinations by Board. The determination as to any of the following matters, made in good faith by or pursuant to the direction of the Board consistent with the Charter, shall be final and conclusive and shall be binding upon the Corporation and every holder of shares of its stock: the amount of the net income of the Corporation for any period and the amount of assets at any time legally available for the payment of dividends, redemption of its stock or the payment of other distributions on its stock; the amount of paid-in surplus, net assets, other surplus, annual or other cash flow, net profit, net assets in excess of capital, undivided profits or excess of profits over losses on sales of assets; the amount, purpose, time of creation, increase or decrease, alteration or cancellation of any reserves or charges and the propriety thereof (whether or not any obligation or liability for which such reserves or charges shall have been created shall have been paid or discharged); any interpretation of the terms, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers or rights, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or distributions, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption of any class or series of stock of the Corporation; the fair value, or any sale, bid or asked price to be applied in determining the fair value, of any asset owned or held by the Corporation or of any shares of stock of the


Corporation; the number of shares of stock of any class of the Corporation; any matter relating to the acquisition, holding and disposition of any assets by the Corporation; or any other matter relating to the business and affairs of the Corporation or required or permitted by applicable law, the Charter or Bylaws or otherwise to be determined by the Board.

Section 4.9 Removal of Directors. Subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of Preferred Stock to elect or remove one or more directors, any director, or the entire Board, may be removed from office at any time only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. For the purpose of this paragraph, “cause” shall mean, with respect to any particular director, conviction of a felony or a final judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction holding that such director caused demonstrable, material harm to the Corporation through bad faith or active and deliberate dishonesty.

Section 4.10 Exclusive Forum. All stockholders of the Corporation shall be subject to the forum selection provisions for any direct or derivative action or proceeding as may be set forth in the Bylaws.

ARTICLE V

STOCK

Section 5.1 Authorized Shares. The Corporation has authority to issue 200,000,000 shares of stock, initially consisting of 200,000,000 shares of Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share (“Common Stock”). The aggregate par value of all authorized shares of stock having par value is $2,000,000. If shares of one class or series of stock are classified or reclassified into shares of another class or series of stock pursuant to this Article V, the number of authorized shares of the former class or series shall be automatically decreased and the number of shares of the latter class or series shall be automatically increased, in each case by the number of shares so classified or reclassified, so that the aggregate number of shares of stock of all classes and series that the Corporation has authority to issue shall not be more than the total number of shares of stock set forth in the first sentence of this paragraph. A majority of the entire Board, without any action by the stockholders of the Corporation, may amend the Charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that the Corporation has authority to issue.

Section 5.2 Common Stock. Each share of Common Stock shall entitle the holder thereof to one vote. The Board may reclassify any unissued shares of Common Stock from time to time into one or more classes or series of stock.

Section 5.3 Preferred Stock. The Board may classify any unissued shares of stock and reclassify any previously classified but unissued shares of stock of any class or series from time to time, into one or more classes or series of stock, including Preferred Stock (“Preferred Stock”).

Section 5.4 Classified or Reclassified Shares. Prior to issuance of classified or reclassified shares of any class or series, the Board by resolution shall: (a) designate that class or


series to distinguish it from all other classes and series of stock of the Corporation; (b) specify the number of shares to be included in the class or series; (c) set or change, subject to the express terms of any class or series of stock of the Corporation outstanding at the time, the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each class or series; and (d) cause the Corporation to file articles supplementary with the State Department of Assessments and Taxation of Maryland (“SDAT”). Any of the terms of any class or series of stock may be made dependent upon facts or events ascertainable outside the Charter (including determinations by the Board or other facts or events within the control of the Corporation) and may vary among holders thereof, provided that the manner in which such facts, events or variations shall operate upon the terms of such class or series of stock is clearly and expressly set forth in the Charter document filed with the SDAT.

Section 5.5 Inspection of Books and Records. A stockholder that is otherwise eligible under applicable law to inspect the Corporation’s books of account, stock ledger, or other specified documents of the Corporation shall have no right to make such inspection if the Board determines that such stockholder has an improper purpose for requesting such inspection.

Section 5.6 Charter and Bylaws. All persons who shall acquire stock in the Corporation shall acquire the same subject to the provisions of the Charter and the Bylaws. The Board shall have the exclusive power, at any time, to make, alter, amend or repeal the Bylaws.

ARTICLE VI

AMENDMENTS; CERTAIN EXTRAORDINARY TRANSACTIONS

Section 6.1 Amendments Generally. The Corporation reserves the right from time to time to make any amendment to its Charter, now or hereafter authorized by law, including any amendment altering the terms or contract rights, as expressly set forth in the Charter, of any shares of outstanding stock. All rights and powers conferred by the Charter on stockholders, directors and officers are granted subject to this reservation.

Section 6.2 Approval of Certain Extraordinary Actions and Charter Amendments.

(a) Required Votes. The affirmative vote of the holders of shares entitled to cast at least 80 percent of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, each voting as a separate class, shall be necessary to effect:

(i) Any amendment to the Charter to make the Corporation’s Common Stock a “redeemable security” or to convert the Corporation, whether by merger or otherwise, from a “closed-end company” to an “open-end company” (as such terms are defined in the 1940 Act);

(ii) The liquidation or dissolution of the Corporation and any amendment to the Charter to effect any such liquidation or dissolution;


(iii) Any amendment to, or any amendment inconsistent with the provisions of, Section 4.1, Section 4.2, Section 4.9, Section 6.1 or this Section 6.2; and

(iv) Any merger, consolidation, share exchange or sale or exchange of all or substantially all of the assets of the Corporation that the MGCL requires be approved by the stockholders of the Corporation;

provided, however, that, if the Continuing Directors (as defined herein), by a vote of at least a majority of such Continuing Directors, in addition to approval by the Board of Directors, approve such proposal, transaction or amendment, the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast shall be sufficient to approve such proposal, transaction or amendment.

(b) Continuing Directors. “Continuing Directors” means (i) the directors identified in Section 4.1, (ii) the directors whose nomination for election by the stockholders or whose election by the directors to fill vacancies on the Board is approved by a majority of the directors identified in Section 4.1, who are on the Board at the time of the nomination or election, as applicable, or (iii) any successor directors whose nomination for election by the stockholders or whose election by the directors to fill vacancies is approved by a majority of the Continuing Directors or successor Continuing Directors, who are on the Board at the time of the nomination or election, as applicable.

ARTICLE VII

LIMITATION OF LIABILITY; INDEMNIFICATION

AND ADVANCE OF EXPENSES

Section 7.1 Limitation of Liability. To the maximum extent that Maryland law in effect from time to time permits limitation of the liability of directors and officers of a corporation, no present or former director or officer of the Corporation shall be liable to the Corporation or its stockholders for money damages.

Section 7.2 Indemnification and Advance of Expenses. The Corporation shall have the power, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to obligate itself to indemnify, and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to, (a) any individual who is a present or former director or officer of the Corporation or (b) any individual who, while a director or officer of the Corporation and at the request of the Corporation, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner or trustee of another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise from and against any claim or liability to which such person may become subject or which such person may incur by reason of his or her service in such capacity. The Corporation shall have the power, with the approval of the Board, to provide such indemnification and advancement of expenses to a person who served a predecessor of the Corporation in any of the capacities described in (a) or (b) above and to any employee or agent of the Corporation or a predecessor of the Corporation.


Section 7.3 1940 Act. The provisions of this Article VII shall be subject to the limitations of the 1940 Act.

Section 7.4 Amendment or Repeal. Neither the amendment nor repeal of this Article VII, nor the adoption or amendment of any other provision of the Charter or Bylaws inconsistent with this Article VII, shall apply to or affect in any respect the applicability of the preceding sections of this Article VII with respect to any act or failure to act which occurred prior to such amendment, repeal or adoption.

THIRD: The amendment to and restatement of the charter as hereinabove set forth have been duly advised by the Board and approved by the stockholders of the Corporation as required by law.

FOURTH: The current address of the principal office of the Corporation is as set forth in Article III of the foregoing amendment and restatement of the charter.

FIFTH: The name and address of the Corporation’s current resident agent is as set forth in Article III of the foregoing amendment and restatement of the charter.

SIXTH: The number of directors of the Corporation and the names of those currently in office are as set forth in Article IV of the foregoing amendment and restatement of the charter.

SEVENTH: This amendment and restatement shall not affect the total number of shares of stock which the Corporation has authority to issue or the par value thereof.

EIGHTH: The undersigned President acknowledges these Articles of Amendment and Restatement to be the corporate act of the Corporation and, as to all matters or facts required to be verified under oath, the undersigned President acknowledges that, to the best of his knowledge, information and belief, these matters and facts are true in all material respects and that this statement is made under the penalties for perjury.

[SIGNATURE PAGE FOLLOWS]


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Corporation has caused these Articles of Amendment and Restatement to be signed in its name and on its behalf by its President and attested to by its Secretary on this third day of April, 2013.

(SEAL)

 

ATTEST:

 

   

Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc.

 

/s/Matthew Cottrell

    By:  

/s/ Kenneth J. Kencel

Matthew Cottrell      

Kenneth J. Kencel

Secretary      

President

EX-3.2

Exhibit 3.2

CARLYLE GMS FINANCE, INC.

AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS

ARTICLE I

OFFICES

Section 1. PRINCIPAL OFFICE. The principal office of the Corporation in the State of Maryland shall be located at such place as the Board of Directors may designate.

Section 2. ADDITIONAL OFFICES. The Corporation may have additional offices, including a principal executive office, at such places as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine or the business of the Corporation may require.

ARTICLE II

MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

Section 1. PLACE. All meetings of stockholders shall be held at the principal executive office of the Corporation or at such other place as shall be set by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of the meeting.

Section 2. ANNUAL MEETING. Commencing with the 2014 annual meeting of stockholders of the Corporation, an annual meeting of the stockholders for the election of directors and the transaction of any business within the powers of the Corporation shall be held on the date and at the time set by the Board of Directors.

Section 3. SPECIAL MEETINGS.

(a) General. The Chairman of the Board of Directors, the chief executive officer, the president or the Board of Directors may call a special meeting of the stockholders. Subject to subsection (b) of this Section 3, a special meeting of stockholders shall also be called by the secretary of the Corporation to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on such matter at such meeting.

(b) Stockholder Requested Special Meetings. (1) Any stockholder of record seeking to have stockholders request a special meeting shall, by sending written notice to the secretary (the “Record Date Request Notice”) by registered mail, return receipt requested, request the Board of Directors to fix a record date to determine the stockholders entitled to request a special meeting (the “Request Record Date”). The Record Date Request Notice shall set forth the purpose of the meeting and the matters proposed to be acted on at it, shall be signed by one or more stockholders of record as of the date of signature (or their agents duly authorized in a writing accompanying the Record Date Request Notice), shall bear the date of signature of each such stockholder (or such agent) and shall set forth all information relating to each such stockholder and each matter proposed to be acted on at the meeting that would be required to be disclosed in connection with the solicitation of proxies for the election of directors in an election contest


(even if an election contest is not involved), or would otherwise be required in connection with such a solicitation, in each case pursuant to Regulation 14A (or any successor provision) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder (the “Exchange Act”). Upon receiving the Record Date Request Notice, the Board of Directors may fix a Request Record Date. The Request Record Date shall not precede and shall not be more than 10 days after the close of business on the date on which the resolution fixing the Request Record Date is adopted by the Board of Directors. If the Board of Directors, within 10 days after the date on which a valid Record Date Request Notice is received, fails to adopt a resolution fixing the Request Record Date, the Request Record Date shall be the close of business on the 10th day after the first date on which a Record Date Request Notice is received by the secretary.

(2) In order for any stockholder to request a special meeting to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders, one or more written requests for a special meeting (collectively, the “Special Meeting Request”) signed by stockholders of record (or their agents duly authorized in a writing accompanying the request) as of the Request Record Date entitled to cast not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on such matter at such meeting (the “Special Meeting Percentage”) shall be delivered to the secretary. In addition, the Special Meeting Request shall (a) set forth the purpose of the meeting and the matters proposed to be acted on at it (which shall be limited to those lawful matters set forth in the Record Date Request Notice received by the secretary), (b) bear the date of signature of each such stockholder (or such agent) signing the Special Meeting Request, (c) set forth (i) the name and address, as they appear in the Corporation’s books, of each stockholder signing such request (or on whose behalf the Special Meeting Request is signed), (ii) the class, series and number of all shares of stock of the Corporation which are owned (beneficially or of record) by each such stockholder and (iii) the nominee holder for, and number of, shares of stock of the Corporation owned beneficially but not of record by such stockholder, (d) be sent to the secretary by registered mail, return receipt requested, and (e) be received by the secretary within 60 days after the Request Record Date. Any requesting stockholder (or agent duly authorized in a writing accompanying the revocation of the Special Meeting Request) may revoke his, her or its request for a special meeting at any time by written revocation delivered to the secretary.

(3) The secretary shall inform the requesting stockholders of the reasonably estimated cost of preparing and mailing or delivering the notice of the meeting (including the Corporation’s proxy materials). The secretary shall not be required to call a special meeting upon stockholder request and such meeting shall not be held unless, in addition to the documents required by paragraph (2) of this Section 3(b), the secretary receives payment of such reasonably estimated cost prior to the preparation and mailing or delivery of such notice of the meeting.

(4) Except as provided in the next sentence, any special meeting shall be held at such place, date and time as may be designated by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the chief executive officer, the president or the Board of Directors, whoever has called the meeting. In the case of any special meeting called by the secretary upon the request of stockholders (a “Stockholder-Requested Meeting”), such meeting shall be held at such place, date and time as may be designated by the Board of Directors; provided, however, that the date of any Stockholder-Requested Meeting shall be not more than 90 days after the record date for such meeting (the “Meeting Record Date”); and provided further that if the Board of Directors fails to


designate, within 10 days after the date that a valid Special Meeting Request is actually received by the secretary (the “Delivery Date”), a date and time for a Stockholder-Requested Meeting, then such meeting shall be held at 2:00 p.m., local time, on the 90th day after the Meeting Record Date or, if such 90th day is not a Business Day (as defined below), on the first preceding Business Day; and provided further that in the event that the Board of Directors fails to designate a place for a Stockholder-Requested Meeting within 10 days after the Delivery Date, then such meeting shall be held at the principal executive office of the Corporation. In fixing a date for a Stockholder-Requested Meeting, the Board of Directors may consider such factors as it deems relevant, including, without limitation, the nature of the matters to be considered, the facts and circumstances surrounding any request for the meeting and any plan of the Board of Directors to call an annual meeting or a special meeting. In the case of any Stockholder-Requested Meeting, if the Board of Directors fails to fix a Meeting Record Date that is a date within 30 days after the Delivery Date, then the close of business on the 30th day after the Delivery Date shall be the Meeting Record Date. The Board of Directors may revoke the notice for any Stockholder-Requested Meeting in the event that the requesting stockholders fail to comply with the provisions of paragraph (3) of this Section 3(b).

(5) If written revocations of the Special Meeting Request have been delivered to the secretary and the result is that stockholders of record (or their agents duly authorized in writing), as of the Request Record Date, entitled to cast less than the Special Meeting Percentage have delivered, and not revoked, requests for a special meeting on the matter to the secretary: (i) if the notice of meeting has not already been delivered, the secretary shall refrain from delivering the notice of the meeting and send to all requesting stockholders who have not revoked such requests written notice of any revocation of a request for a special meeting on the matter, or (ii) if the notice of meeting has been delivered and if the secretary first sends to all requesting stockholders who have not revoked requests for a special meeting on the matter written notice of any revocation of a request for the special meeting and written notice of the Corporation’s intention to revoke the notice of the meeting or for the chairman of the meeting to adjourn the meeting without action on the matter, (A) the secretary may revoke the notice of the meeting at any time before 10 days before the commencement of the meeting or (B) the chairman of the meeting may call the meeting to order and adjourn the meeting without acting on the matter. Any request for a special meeting received after a revocation by the secretary of a notice of a meeting shall be considered a request for a new special meeting.

(6) The Chairman of the Board of Directors, chief executive officer, president or Board of Directors may appoint regionally or nationally recognized independent inspectors of elections to act as the agent of the Corporation for the purpose of promptly performing a ministerial review of the validity of any purported Special Meeting Request received by the secretary. For the purpose of permitting the inspectors to perform such review, no such purported Special Meeting Request shall be deemed to have been delivered to the secretary until the earlier of (i) five Business Days after receipt by the secretary of such purported request and (ii) such date as the independent inspectors certify to the Corporation that the valid requests received by the secretary represent, as of the Request Record Date, stockholders of record entitled to cast not less than the Special Meeting Percentage. Nothing contained in this paragraph (6) shall in any way be construed to suggest or imply that the Corporation or any stockholder shall not be entitled to contest the validity of any request, whether during or after such five Business Day period, or to take any other action (including, without limitation, the commencement, prosecution or defense of any litigation with respect thereto, and the seeking of injunctive relief in such litigation).


(7) For purposes of these Bylaws, “Business Day” shall mean any day other than a Saturday, a Sunday or a day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or obligated by law or executive order to close.

Section 4. NOTICE. Not less than 10 nor more than 90 days before each meeting of stockholders, the secretary shall give to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting and to each stockholder not entitled to vote who is entitled to notice of the meeting notice in writing or by electronic transmission stating the time and place of the meeting and, in the case of a special meeting or as otherwise may be required by any statute, the purpose for which the meeting is called, by mail, by presenting it to such stockholder personally, by leaving it at the stockholder’s residence or usual place of business or by any other means permitted by Maryland law. If mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be given when deposited in the United States mail addressed to the stockholder at the stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the Corporation, with postage thereon prepaid. If transmitted electronically, such notice shall be deemed to be given when transmitted to the stockholder by an electronic transmission to any address or number of the stockholder at which the stockholder receives electronic transmissions. The Corporation may give a single notice to all stockholders who share an address, which single notice shall be effective as to any stockholder at such address, unless such stockholder objects to receiving such single notice or revokes a prior consent to receiving such single notice. Failure to give notice of any meeting to one or more stockholders, or any irregularity in such notice, shall not affect the validity of any meeting fixed in accordance with this Article II or the validity of any proceedings at any such meeting.

Subject to Section 11(a) of this Article II, any business of the Corporation may be transacted at an annual meeting of stockholders without being specifically designated in the notice, except such business as is required by any statute to be stated in such notice. No business shall be transacted at a special meeting of stockholders except as specifically designated in the notice. The Corporation may postpone or cancel a meeting of stockholders by making a public announcement (as defined in Section 11(c)(3) of this Article II) of such postponement or cancellation prior to the meeting. Notice of the date, time and place to which the meeting is postponed shall be given not less than 10 days prior to such date and otherwise in the manner set forth in this section.

Section 5. ORGANIZATION AND CONDUCT. Every meeting of stockholders shall be conducted by an individual appointed by the Board of Directors to be chairman of the meeting or, in the absence of such appointment or appointed individual, by the Chairman of the Board of Directors or, in the case of a vacancy in the office or absence of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, by one of the following officers present at the meeting in the following order: the chief executive officer, the president, the chief operating officer, the chief financial officer or, in the absence of such officers, a chairman chosen by the stockholders by the vote of a majority of the votes cast by stockholders present in person or by proxy. The secretary, or, in the secretary’s absence, an assistant secretary, or, in the absence of both the secretary and assistant secretaries, an individual appointed by the Board of Directors or, in the absence of such appointment, an individual appointed by the chairman of the meeting shall act as secretary. In the event that the


secretary presides at a meeting of stockholders, an assistant secretary, or, in the absence of all assistant secretaries, an individual appointed by the Board of Directors or the chairman of the meeting, shall record the minutes of the meeting. The order of business and all other matters of procedure at any meeting of stockholders shall be determined by the chairman of the meeting. The chairman of the meeting may prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and take such action as, in the discretion of the chairman and without any action by the stockholders, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting, including, without limitation, (a) restricting admission to the time set for the commencement of the meeting; (b) limiting attendance at the meeting to stockholders of record of the Corporation, their duly authorized proxies and other such individuals as the chairman of the meeting may determine; (c) limiting participation at the meeting on any matter to stockholders of record of the Corporation entitled to vote on such matter, their duly authorized proxies and other such individuals as the chairman of the meeting may determine; (d) limiting the time allotted to questions or comments; (e) determining when the polls should be opened and when the polls should be closed; (f) maintaining order and security at the meeting; (g) removing any stockholder or any other individual who refuses to comply with meeting procedures, rules or guidelines as set forth by the chairman of the meeting; (h) concluding a meeting or recessing or adjourning the meeting to a later date and time and at a place announced at the meeting; and (i) complying with any state and local laws and regulations concerning safety and security. Unless otherwise determined by the chairman of the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with the rules of parliamentary procedure.

Section 6. QUORUM. At any meeting of stockholders, the presence in person or by proxy of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast (without regard to class) shall constitute a quorum at any meeting of the stockholders, except with respect to any such matter that, under applicable statutes or regulatory requirements, requires approval by a separate vote of one or more classes of stock, in which case the presence in person or by proxy of the holders of shares entitled to cast a majority of the votes entitled to be cast by each such class on such a matter shall constitute a quorum. This section shall not affect any requirement under any statute or the charter of the Corporation for the vote necessary for the approval of any matter.

If, however, such quorum is not established at any meeting of the stockholders, the chairman of the meeting shall have the power to adjourn the meeting sine die or from time to time to a date not more than 120 days after the original record date without notice other than announcement at the meeting. If a meeting is adjourned and a quorum is present at such adjournment, any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the meeting as originally notified.

The stockholders present either in person or by proxy, at a meeting which has been duly called and at which a quorum has been established, may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal from the meeting of enough stockholders to leave fewer than would be required to establish a quorum.

Section 7. VOTING. A plurality of all the votes cast at a meeting of stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present shall be sufficient to elect a director. Each share may be voted for as many individuals as there are directors to be elected and for whose election the share is entitled to be voted. A majority of the votes cast at a meeting of stockholders duly called and


at which a quorum is present shall be sufficient to approve any other matter which may properly come before the meeting, unless a different vote is required by statute or by the charter of the Corporation. Unless otherwise provided by statute or by the charter, each outstanding share, regardless of class, shall be entitled to one vote on each matter submitted to a vote at a meeting of stockholders.

Section 8. PROXIES. A stockholder may cast the votes entitled to be cast by the holder of the shares of stock owned of record by the stockholder in person or by proxy executed by the stockholder or by the stockholder’s duly authorized agent in any manner permitted by law. Such proxy or evidence of authorization of such proxy shall be filed with the secretary of the Corporation before or at the meeting. No proxy shall be valid more than eleven months after its date unless otherwise provided in the proxy.

Section 9. VOTING OF STOCK BY CERTAIN HOLDERS. Stock of the Corporation registered in the name of a corporation, partnership, trust, limited liability company or other entity, if entitled to be voted, may be voted by the president or a vice president, general partner, trustee or managing member thereof, as the case may be, or a proxy appointed by any of the foregoing individuals, unless some other person who has been appointed to vote such stock pursuant to a bylaw or a resolution of the governing body of such corporation or other entity or agreement of the partners of a partnership presents a certified copy of such bylaw, resolution or agreement, in which case such person may vote such stock. Any director or fiduciary may vote stock registered in the name of such person in the capacity of such director or fiduciary, either in person or by proxy.

Shares of stock of the Corporation directly or indirectly owned by it shall not be voted at any meeting and shall not be counted in determining the total number of outstanding shares entitled to be voted at any given time, unless they are held by it in a fiduciary capacity, in which case they may be voted and shall be counted in determining the total number of outstanding shares at any given time.

The Board of Directors may adopt by resolution a procedure by which a stockholder may certify in writing to the Corporation that any shares of stock registered in the name of the stockholder are held for the account of a specified person other than the stockholder. The resolution shall set forth the class of stockholders who may make the certification, the purpose for which the certification may be made, the form of certification and the information to be contained in it; if the certification is with respect to a record date, the time after the record date within which the certification must be received by the Corporation; and any other provisions with respect to the procedure which the Board of Directors considers necessary or desirable. On receipt by the Corporation of such certification, the person specified in the certification shall be regarded as, for the purposes set forth in the certification, the holder of record of the specified stock in place of the stockholder who makes the certification.

Section 10. INSPECTORS. The Board of Directors or the chair of the meeting may appoint, before or at the meeting, one or more inspectors for the meeting and any successor thereto. The inspectors, if any, shall (i) determine the number of shares of stock represented at the meeting, in person or by proxy, and the validity and effect of proxies, (ii) receive and tabulate all votes, ballots or consents, (iii) report such tabulation to the chair of the meeting, (iv) hear and


determine all challenges and questions arising in connection with the right to vote, and (v) do such acts as are proper to fairly conduct the election or vote. Each such report shall be in writing and signed by the inspector or by a majority of them if there is more than one inspector acting at such meeting. If there is more than one inspector, the report of a majority shall be the report of the inspectors. The report of the inspector or inspectors on the number of shares represented at the meeting and the results of the voting shall be prima facie evidence thereof.

Section 11. ADVANCE NOTICE OF STOCKHOLDER NOMINEES FOR DIRECTOR AND OTHER STOCKHOLDER PROPOSALS.

(a) Annual Meetings of Stockholders. (1) Nominations of individuals for election to the Board of Directors and the proposal of other business to be considered by the stockholders may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders (i) pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting, (ii) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or (iii) by any stockholder of the Corporation who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of notice by the stockholder as provided for in this Section 11(a) and at the time of the annual meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or on any such other business and who has complied with this Section 11(a).

(2) For any nomination or other business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (iii) of paragraph (a)(1) of this Section 11, the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the secretary of the Corporation and any such other business must otherwise be a proper matter for action by the stockholders. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice shall set forth all information required under this Section 11 and shall be delivered to the secretary at the principal executive office of the Corporation not earlier than the 150th day nor later than 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the 120th day prior to the first anniversary of the date of the proxy statement (as defined in Section 11(c)(3) of this Article II) for the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that in the event that the date of the annual meeting is advanced or delayed by more than 30 days from the first anniversary of the date of the preceding year’s annual meeting (or in the case of the first annual meeting), notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered not earlier than the 150th day prior to the date of such annual meeting and not later than 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the later of the 120th day prior to the date of such annual meeting, as originally convened, or the 10th day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made. The public announcement of a postponement or adjournment of an annual meeting shall not commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.

(3) Such stockholder’s notice shall set forth:

(i) as to each individual whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election or reelection as a director (each, a “Proposed Nominee”), all information relating to the Proposed Nominee that would be required to be disclosed in connection with the solicitation of proxies for the election of the Proposed Nominee as a director in an election contest (even if an election contest is not involved), or would otherwise be required in connection with such solicitation, in each case pursuant to Regulation 14A (or any successor provision) under the Exchange Act, whether such stockholder believes any Proposed Nominee is, or is not, an “interested person” of the Corporation, as defined in the Investment


Company Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules promulgated thereunder (the “Investment Company Act”) and information regarding such Proposed Nominee that is sufficient, in the discretion of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof or any authorized officer of the Corporation, to make such determination;

(ii) as to any other business that the stockholder proposes to bring before the meeting, a description of such business, the stockholder’s reasons for proposing such business at the meeting and any material interest in such business of such stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person (as defined below), individually or in the aggregate, including any anticipated benefit to the stockholder or the Stockholder Associated Person therefrom;

(iii) as to the stockholder giving the notice, any Proposed Nominee and any Stockholder Associated Person,

(A) the class, series and number of all shares of stock or other securities of the Corporation or any affiliate thereof (collectively, the “Company Securities”), if any, which are owned (beneficially or of record) by such stockholder, Proposed Nominee or Stockholder Associated Person, the date on which each such Company Security was acquired and the investment intent of such acquisition, and any short interest (including any opportunity to profit or share in any benefit from any decrease in the price of such stock or other security) in any Company Securities of any such person,

(B) the nominee holder for, and number of, any Company Securities owned beneficially but not of record by such stockholder, Proposed Nominee or Stockholder Associated Person,

(C) whether and the extent to which such stockholder, Proposed Nominee or Stockholder Associated Person, directly or indirectly (through brokers, nominees or otherwise), is subject to or during the last 12 months has engaged in any hedging, derivative or other transaction or series of transactions or entered into any other agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any short interest, any borrowing or lending of securities or any proxy or voting agreement), the effect or intent of which is to (I) manage risk or benefit of changes in the price of (x) Company Securities or (y) any security of any other closed-end investment company (a “Peer Group Company”) for such stockholder, Proposed Nominee or Stockholder Associated Person or (II) increase or decrease the voting power of such stockholder, Proposed Nominee or Stockholder Associated Person in the Corporation or any affiliate thereof (or, as applicable, in any Peer Group Company) disproportionately to such person’s economic interest in the Company Securities (or, as applicable, in any Peer Group Company); and

(D) any substantial interest, direct or indirect (including, without limitation, any existing or prospective commercial, business or contractual relationship with the Corporation), by security holdings or otherwise, of such stockholder, Proposed Nominee or Stockholder Associated Person, in the Corporation or any affiliate thereof, other than an interest arising from the ownership of Company Securities where such stockholder, Proposed Nominee or Stockholder Associated Person receives no extra or special benefit not shared on a pro rata basis by all other holders of the same class or series;


(iv) as to the stockholder giving the notice, any Stockholder Associated Person with an interest or ownership referred to in clauses (ii) or (iii) of this paragraph (3) of this Section 11(a) and any Proposed Nominee,

(A) the name and address of such stockholder, as they appear on the Corporation’s stock ledger, and the current name and business address, if different, of each such Stockholder Associated Person and any Proposed Nominee and

(B) the investment strategy or objective, if any, of such stockholder and each such Stockholder Associated Person who is not an individual and a copy of the prospectus, offering memorandum or similar document, if any, provided to investors or potential investors in such stockholder and each such Stockholder Associated Person; and

(v) to the extent known by the stockholder giving the notice, the name and address of any other stockholder supporting the nominee for election or reelection as a director or the proposal of other business on the date of such stockholder’s notice.

(4) Such stockholder’s notice shall, with respect to any Proposed Nominee, be accompanied by a certificate executed by the Proposed Nominee (i) certifying that such Proposed Nominee (a) is not, and will not become a party to, any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the Corporation in connection with service or action as a director that has not been disclosed to the Corporation and (b) will serve as a director of the Corporation if elected; and (ii) attaching a completed Proposed Nominee questionnaire (which questionnaire shall be provided by the Corporation, upon request, to the stockholder providing the notice and shall include all information relating to the Proposed Nominee that would be required to be disclosed in connection with the solicitation of proxies for the election of the Proposed Nominee as a director in an election contest (even if an election contest is not involved), or would otherwise be required in connection with such solicitation, in each case pursuant to Regulation 14A (or any successor provision) under the Exchange Act and the rules thereunder, or would be required pursuant to the rules of any national securities exchange on which any securities of the Corporation are listed or over-the-counter market on which any securities of the Corporation are traded).

(5) Notwithstanding anything in this subsection (a) of this Section 11 to the contrary, in the event that the number of directors to be elected to the Board of Directors is increased, and there is no public announcement of such action at least 130 days prior to the first anniversary of the date of the proxy statement (as defined in Section 11(c)(3) of this Article II) for the preceding year’s annual meeting, a stockholder’s notice required by this Section 11(a) shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for any new positions created by such increase, if it shall be delivered to the secretary at the principal executive office of the Corporation not later than 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the 10th day following the day on which such public announcement is first made by the Corporation.


(6) For purposes of this Section 11, “Stockholder Associated Person” of any stockholder shall mean (i) any person acting in concert with such stockholder, (ii) any beneficial owner of shares of stock of the Corporation owned of record or beneficially by such stockholder (other than a stockholder that is a depositary) and (iii) any person that directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, or is controlled by, or is under common control with, such stockholder or such Stockholder Associated Person.

(b) Special Meetings of Stockholders. Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting. Nominations of individuals for election to the Board of Directors may be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected only (i) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or (ii) provided that the special meeting has been called in accordance with Section 3(a) of this Article II for the purpose of electing directors, by any stockholder of the Corporation who is a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of notice provided for in this Section 11 and at the time of the special meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has complied with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 11. In the event the Corporation calls a special meeting of stockholders for the purpose of electing one or more individuals to the Board of Directors, any stockholder may nominate an individual or individuals (as the case may be) for election as a director as specified in the Corporation’s notice of meeting, if the stockholder’s notice, containing the information required by paragraph (a)(3) of this Section 11, is delivered to the secretary at the principal executive office of the Corporation not earlier than the 120th day prior to such special meeting and not later than 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the later of the 90th day prior to such special meeting or the 10th day following the day on which public announcement is first made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the Board of Directors to be elected at such meeting. The public announcement of a postponement or adjournment of a special meeting shall not commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.

(c) General. (1) If information submitted pursuant to this Section 11 by any stockholder proposing a nominee for election as a director or any proposal for other business at a meeting of stockholders shall be inaccurate in any material respect, such information may be deemed not to have been provided in accordance with this Section 11. Any such stockholder shall notify the Corporation of any inaccuracy or change (within two Business Days of becoming aware of such inaccuracy or change) in any such information. Upon written request by the secretary or the Board of Directors, any such stockholder shall provide, within five Business Days of delivery of such request (or such other period as may be specified in such request), (A) written verification, satisfactory, in the discretion of the Board of Directors or any authorized officer of the Corporation, to demonstrate the accuracy of any information submitted by the stockholder pursuant to this Section 11, and (B) a written update of any information (including, if requested by the Corporation, written confirmation by such stockholder that it continues to intend to bring such nomination or other business proposal before the meeting) submitted by the stockholder pursuant to this Section 11 as of an earlier date. If a stockholder fails to provide such written verification or written update within such period, the information as to which written verification or a written update was requested may be deemed not to have been provided in accordance with this Section 11.


(2) Only such individuals who are nominated in accordance with this Section 11 shall be eligible for election by stockholders as directors, and only such business shall be conducted at a meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting in accordance with this Section 11. The chairman of the meeting shall have the power to determine whether a nomination or any other business proposed to be brought before the meeting was made or proposed, as the case may be, in accordance with this Section 11.

(3) For purposes of this Section 11, “the date of the proxy statement” shall have the same meaning as “the date of the company’s proxy statement released to shareholders” as used in Rule 14a-8(e) promulgated under the Exchange Act, as interpreted by the Securities and Exchange Commission from time to time. “Public announcement” shall mean disclosure (A) in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press, Business Wire, PR Newswire or other widely circulated news or wire service or (B) in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to the Exchange Act or the Investment Company Act.

(4) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 11, a stockholder shall also comply with all applicable requirements of state law and of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to the matters set forth in this Section 11. Nothing in this Section 11 shall be deemed to affect any right of a stockholder to request inclusion of a proposal in, or the right of the Corporation to omit a proposal from, the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 (or any successor provision) under the Exchange Act. Nothing in this Section 11 shall require disclosure of revocable proxies received by the stockholder or Stockholder Associated Person pursuant to a solicitation of proxies after the filing of an effective Schedule 14A by such stockholder or Stockholder Associated Person under Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act

Section 12. VOTING BY BALLOT. Voting on any question or in any election may be viva voce unless the presiding officer shall order or any stockholder shall demand that voting be by ballot.

Section 13. CONTROL SHARE ACQUISITION ACT. Notwithstanding any other provision of the charter of the Corporation or these Bylaws, Subtitle 7 of Title 3 of the Maryland General Corporation Law, or any successor statute (the “MGCL”), shall not apply to any acquisition by any person of shares of stock of the Corporation. This section may be repealed, in whole or in part, at any time, whether before or after an acquisition of control shares and, upon such repeal, may, to the extent provided by any successor bylaw, apply to any prior or subsequent control share acquisition.

ARTICLE III

DIRECTORS

Section 1. GENERAL POWERS. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed under the direction of its Board of Directors.


Section 2. NUMBER, TENURE AND RESIGNATION. At any regular meeting or at any special meeting called for that purpose, a majority of the entire Board of Directors may establish, increase or decrease the number of directors, provided that the number thereof shall never be less than one, nor more than 12, and further provided that the tenure of office of a director shall not be affected by any decrease in the number of directors. Any director of the Corporation may resign at any time by delivering his or her resignation to the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board of Directors or the secretary. Any resignation shall take effect immediately upon its receipt or at such later time specified in the resignation. The acceptance of a resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective unless otherwise stated in the resignation.

Section 3. ANNUAL AND REGULAR MEETINGS. An annual meeting of the Board of Directors shall be held immediately after and at the same place as the annual meeting of stockholders, no notice other than this Bylaw being necessary. In the event such meeting is not so held, the meeting may be held at such time and place as shall be specified in a notice given as hereinafter provided for special meetings of the Board of Directors. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held from time to time at such places and times as provided by the Board of Directors by resolution, without notice other than such resolution.

Section 4. SPECIAL MEETINGS. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by or at the request of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the chief executive officer, the president or by a majority of the directors then in office. The person or persons authorized to call special meetings of the Board of Directors may fix any place as the place for holding any special meeting of the Board of Directors called by them. The Board of Directors may provide, by resolution, the time and place for the holding of special meetings of the Board of Directors without notice other than such resolution.

Section 5. NOTICE. Notice of any special meeting of the Board of Directors shall be delivered personally or by telephone, electronic mail, facsimile transmission, United States mail or courier to each director at his or her business or residence address. Notice by personal delivery, telephone, electronic mail or facsimile transmission shall be given at least 24 hours prior to the meeting. Notice by United States mail shall be given at least three days prior to the meeting. Notice by courier shall be given at least two days prior to the meeting. Telephone notice shall be deemed to be given when the director or his or her agent is personally given such notice in a telephone call to which the director or his or her agent is a party. Electronic mail notice shall be deemed to be given upon transmission of the message to the electronic mail address given to the Corporation by the director. Facsimile transmission notice shall be deemed to be given upon completion of the transmission of the message to the number given to the Corporation by the director and receipt of a completed answer-back indicating receipt. Notice by United States mail shall be deemed to be given when deposited in the United States mail properly addressed, with postage thereon prepaid. Notice by courier shall be deemed to be given when deposited with or delivered to a courier properly addressed. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any annual, regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors need be stated in the notice, unless specifically required by statute or these Bylaws.

Section 6. QUORUM. A majority of the directors shall constitute a quorum for transaction of business at any meeting of the Board of Directors, provided that, if less than a


majority of such directors is present at such meeting, a majority of the directors present may adjourn the meeting from time to time without further notice, and provided further that if, pursuant to applicable law, the charter of the Corporation or these Bylaws, the vote of a majority or other percentage of a particular group of directors is required for action, a quorum must also include a majority or such other percentage of such group.

The directors present at a meeting which has been duly called and at which a quorum has been established may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal from the meeting of enough directors to leave fewer than required to establish a quorum.

Section 7. VOTING. The action of a majority of the directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the action of the Board of Directors, unless the concurrence of a greater proportion is required for such action by applicable law, the charter or these Bylaws. If enough directors have withdrawn from a meeting to leave fewer than required to establish a quorum, but the meeting is not adjourned, the action of the majority of that number of directors necessary to constitute a quorum at such meeting shall be the action of the Board of Directors, unless the concurrence of a greater proportion is required for such action by applicable law, the charter of the Corporation or these Bylaws.

Section 8. ORGANIZATION. At each meeting of the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board of Directors or, in the absence of the Chairman, the chief executive officer, the president, the chief operating officer, the chief financial officer or, in the absence of such officers, a director chosen by a majority of the directors present, shall act as chairman of the meeting. The secretary or, in his or her absence, an assistant secretary of the Corporation, or in the absence of the secretary and all assistant secretaries, an individual appointed by the chairman of the meeting, shall act as secretary of the meeting.

Section 9. TELEPHONE MEETINGS. Directors may participate in a meeting by means of a conference telephone or other communications equipment if all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other at the same time; provided however, this Section 9 does not apply to any action of the directors pursuant to the Investment Company Act, that requires the vote of the directors to be cast in person at a meeting. Participation in a meeting by these means shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.

Section 10. CONSENT BY DIRECTORS WITHOUT A MEETING. Any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors may be taken without a meeting, if a consent to such action is given in writing or by electronic transmission and is filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors; provided however, this Section 10 does not apply to any action of the directors pursuant to the Investment Company Act, that requires the vote of the directors to be cast in person at a meeting.

Section 11. VACANCIES. If for any reason any or all the directors cease to be directors, such event shall not terminate the Corporation or affect these Bylaws or the powers of the remaining directors hereunder, if any. Prior to the effectiveness of the Corporation’s election in Article IV of the charter, any vacancy on the Board of Directors may be filled in the manner otherwise permitted by the MGCL. Upon the effectiveness of the Corporation’s election in Article IV of the charter, subject to applicable requirements of the Investment Company Act, except as may be provided by the Board of Directors in setting the terms of any class or series of


preferred stock, (a) any vacancy on the Board of Directors may be filled only by a majority of the remaining directors, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum and (b) any director elected to fill a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of the full term of the class in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is elected and qualifies.

Section 12. COMPENSATION. Directors shall not receive any stated salary for their services as directors but, by resolution of the Board of Directors, may receive compensation per year and/or per meeting and/or per visit to real property or other facilities owned or leased by the Corporation and for any service or activity they performed or engaged in as directors. Directors may be reimbursed for expenses of attendance, if any, at each annual, regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof and for their expenses, if any, in connection with each property visit and any other service or activity they perform or engage in as directors; but nothing herein contained shall be construed to preclude any directors from serving the Corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor.

Section 13. SURETY BONDS. Unless required by law, no director shall be obligated to give any bond or surety or other security for the performance of any of his or her duties.

Section 14. RELIANCE. Each director and officer of the Corporation shall, in the performance of his or her duties with respect to the Corporation, be entitled to rely on any information, opinion, report or statement, including any financial statement or other financial data, prepared or presented by an officer or employee of the Corporation whom the director or officer reasonably believes to be reliable and competent in the matters presented, by a lawyer, certified public accountant or other person, as to a matter which the director or officer reasonably believes to be within the person’s professional or expert competence, or, with respect to a director, by a committee of the Board of Directors on which the director does not serve, as to a matter within its designated authority, if the director reasonably believes the committee to merit confidence.

Section 15. RATIFICATION. The Board of Directors or the stockholders may ratify and make binding on the Corporation any action or inaction by the Corporation or its officers to the extent that the Board of Directors or the stockholders could have originally authorized the matter. Moreover, any action or inaction questioned in any stockholders’ derivative proceeding or any other proceeding on the ground of lack of authority, defective or irregular execution, adverse interest of a director, officer or stockholder, non-disclosure, miscomputation, the application of improper principles or practices of accounting or otherwise, may be ratified, before or after judgment, by the Board of Directors or by the stockholders, and if so ratified, shall have the same force and effect as if the questioned action or inaction had been originally duly authorized, and such ratification shall be binding upon the Corporation and its stockholders and shall constitute a bar to any claim or execution of any judgment in respect of such questioned action or inaction.

Section 16. EMERGENCY PROVISIONS. Notwithstanding any other provision in the charter or these Bylaws, this Section 17 shall apply during the existence of any catastrophe, or other similar emergency condition, as a result of which a quorum of the Board of Directors under Article III of these Bylaws cannot readily be obtained (an “Emergency”). During any Emergency, unless otherwise provided by the Board of Directors, (i) a meeting of the Board of Directors or a committee thereof may be called by any director or officer by any means feasible


under the circumstances; (ii) notice of any meeting of the Board of Directors during such an Emergency may be given less than 24 hours prior to the meeting to as many directors and by such means as may be feasible at the time, including publication, television or radio; and (iii) the number of directors necessary to constitute a quorum shall be one-third of the entire Board of Directors.

ARTICLE IV

COMMITTEES

Section 1. NUMBER, TENURE AND QUALIFICATIONS. The Board of Directors may appoint from among its members an Executive Committee, an Audit Committee and other committees, composed of one or more directors, to serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors.

Section 2. POWERS. The Board of Directors may delegate to committees appointed under Section 1 of this Article any of the powers of the Board of Directors, except as prohibited by law.

Section 3. MEETINGS. Notice of committee meetings shall be given in the same manner as notice for special meetings of the Board of Directors. A majority of the members of the committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of the committee. The act of a majority of the committee members present at a meeting shall be the act of such committee. The Board of Directors may designate a chairman of any committee, and such chairman or, in the absence of a chairman, any two members of any committee (if there are at least two members of the committee) may fix the time and place of its meeting unless the Board shall otherwise provide. In the absence of any member of any such committee, the members thereof present at any meeting, whether or not they constitute a quorum, may appoint another director to act in the place of such absent member. Each committee shall keep minutes of its proceedings.

Section 4. TELEPHONE MEETINGS. Members of a committee of the Board of Directors may participate in a meeting by means of a conference telephone or other communications equipment if all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other at the same time. Participation in a meeting by these means shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.

Section 5. CONSENT BY COMMITTEES WITHOUT A MEETING. Any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of a committee of the Board of Directors may be taken without a meeting, if a consent to such action is given in writing or by electronic transmission by each member of the committee and is filed with the minutes of proceedings of such committee.

Section 6. VACANCIES. Subject to the provisions hereof, the Board of Directors shall have the power at any time to change the membership of any committee, to fill any vacancy, to designate one or more alternate members to replace any absent or disqualified member or to dissolve any such committee. Subject to the power of the Board of Directors, the members of the committee shall have the power to fill any vacancies on the committee.


ARTICLE V

OFFICERS

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS. The officers of the Corporation shall include a president, a secretary and a treasurer and may include a Chairman of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a chief operating officer, a chief financial officer, a chief investment officer, a chief compliance officer, one or more assistant secretaries and one or more assistant treasurers. In addition, the Board of Directors may from time to time elect such other officers with such powers and duties as it shall deem necessary or desirable. The officers of the Corporation shall be elected annually by the Board of Directors. Each officer shall serve until his or her successor is elected and qualifies or until his or her death, or his or her resignation or removal in the manner hereinafter provided. Any two or more offices may be held by the same person. Election of an officer or agent shall not of itself create contract rights between the Corporation and such officer or agent.

Section 2. REMOVAL AND RESIGNATION. Any officer or agent of the Corporation may be removed, with or without cause, by the Board of Directors if in its judgment the best interests of the Corporation would be served thereby, but such removal shall be without prejudice to the contract rights, if any, of the person so removed. Any officer of the Corporation may resign at any time by delivering his or her resignation to the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the chief executive officer, the president or the secretary. Any resignation shall take effect immediately upon its receipt or at such later time specified in the notice of resignation. The acceptance of a resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective unless otherwise stated in the resignation. Such resignation shall be without prejudice to the contract rights, if any, of the Corporation.

Section 3. VACANCIES. A vacancy in any office may be filled by the Board of Directors for the balance of the term.

Section 4. CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS. The Board of Directors may designate from among its members a Chairman of the Board of Directors, who shall not, solely by reason of these Bylaws, be an officer of the Corporation. The Board of Directors may designate the Chairman of the Board of Directors as an executive or non-executive chairman. The Chairman of the Board of Directors shall preside over the meetings of the Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board of Directors shall perform such other duties as may be assigned to him or her by these Bylaws or the Board of Directors.

Section 5. CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER. The Board of Directors may designate a chief executive officer. In the absence of such designation, the president shall assume the functions and responsibilities of the chief executive officer of the Corporation. The chief executive officer shall have general responsibility for implementation of the policies of the Corporation, as determined by the Board of Directors, and for the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation. He or she may execute any deed, mortgage, bond, contract or other instrument, except in cases where the execution thereof shall be expressly delegated by the Board of Directors or by these Bylaws to some other officer or agent of the Corporation or shall be required by law to be otherwise executed; and in general shall perform all duties incident to the office of chief executive officer and such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors from time to time.


Section 6. CHIEF OPERATING OFFICER. The Board of Directors may designate a chief operating officer. The chief operating officer shall have the responsibilities and duties as determined by the Board of Directors or the chief executive officer.

Section 7. CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER. The Board of Directors may designate a chief financial officer. The chief financial officer shall have the responsibilities and duties as determined by the Board of Directors or the chief executive officer.

Section 8. CHIEF COMPLIANCE OFFICER. The chief compliance officer, subject to the direction of and reporting to the Board of Directors, shall be responsible for the oversight of the Corporation’s compliance with the Federal securities laws. The designation, compensation and removal of the chief compliance officer must be approved by the Board of Directors, including a majority of the directors who are not “interested persons” (as such term is defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the Investment Company Act) of the Corporation. The chief compliance officer shall perform such executive, supervisory and management functions and duties as may be assigned to him or her from time to time.

Section 10. PRESIDENT. In the absence of a designation of a chief executive officer by the Board of Directors, the president shall assume the functions and responsibilities of the chief executive officer of the Corporation. He or she may execute any deed, mortgage, bond, contract or other instrument, except in cases where the execution thereof shall be expressly delegated by the Board of Directors or by these Bylaws to some other officer or agent of the Corporation or shall be required by law to be otherwise executed; and in general shall perform all duties incident to the office of president and such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors from time to time.

Section 11. SECRETARY. The secretary shall: (a) keep the minutes of the proceedings of the stockholders, the Board of Directors and committees of the Board of Directors in one or more books provided for that purpose; (b) see that all notices are duly given in accordance with the provisions of these Bylaws or as required by law; (c) be custodian of the corporate records and of the seal of the Corporation; (d) keep a register of the post office address of each stockholder which shall be furnished to the secretary by such stockholder; (e) have general charge of the stock transfer books of the Corporation; and (f) in general perform such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to him or her by the chief executive officer, the president or the Board of Directors.

Section 12. TREASURER. The treasurer shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the Corporation, shall deposit all moneys and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the Corporation in such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Directors and in general perform such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to him or her by the chief executive officer, the president or the Board of Directors. In the absence of a designation of a chief financial officer by the Board of Directors, the treasurer shall be the chief financial officer of the Corporation.


The treasurer shall disburse the funds of the Corporation as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements, and shall render to the president and Board of Directors, at the regular meetings of the Board of Directors or whenever it may so require, an account of all his or her transactions as treasurer and of the financial condition of the Corporation.

Section 13. ASSISTANT SECRETARIES AND ASSISTANT TREASURERS. The assistant secretaries and assistant treasurers, in general, shall perform such duties as shall be assigned to them by the secretary or treasurer, respectively, or by the chief executive officer, the president or the Board of Directors.

ARTICLE VI

CONTRACTS, CHECKS AND DEPOSITS

Section 1. CONTRACTS. The Board of Directors may authorize any officer or agent to enter into any contract or to execute and deliver any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation and such authority may be general or confined to specific instances. Any agreement, deed, mortgage, lease or other document shall be valid and binding upon the Corporation when duly authorized or ratified by action of the Board of Directors and executed by an authorized person.

Section 2. CHECKS AND DRAFTS. All checks, drafts or other orders for the payment of money, notes or other evidences of indebtedness issued in the name of the Corporation shall be signed by such officer or agent of the Corporation in such manner as shall from time to time be determined by the Board of Directors.

Section 3. DEPOSITS. All funds of the Corporation not otherwise employed shall be deposited from time to time to the credit of the Corporation in such banks, trust companies or other depositories as the Board of Directors may designate.

ARTICLE VII

STOCK

Section 1. CERTIFICATES; REQUIRED INFORMATION. Except as may be otherwise provided by the Board of Directors, stockholders of the Corporation are not entitled to certificates representing the shares of stock held by them. In the event that the Corporation issues shares of stock represented by certificates, such certificates shall be in such form as prescribed by the Board of Directors or a duly authorized officer, shall contain the statements and information required by the MGCL and shall be signed by the officers of the Corporation in the manner permitted by the MGCL. In the event that the Corporation issues shares of stock without certificates, to the extent then required by the MGCL, the Corporation shall provide to the record holders of such shares a written statement of the information required by the MGCL to be included on stock certificates. There shall be no differences in the rights and obligations of stockholders based on whether or not their shares are represented by certificates.

Section 2. TRANSFERS. All transfers of shares of stock shall be made on the books of the Corporation, by the holder of the shares, in person or by his or her attorney, in such manner


as the Board of Directors or any officer of the Corporation may prescribe and, if such shares are certificated, upon surrender of certificates duly endorsed. The issuance of a new certificate upon the transfer of certificated shares is subject to the determination of the Board of Directors that such shares shall no longer be represented by certificates. Upon the transfer of any uncertificated shares, to the extent then required by the MGCL, the Corporation shall provide to the record holders of such shares a written statement of the information required by the MGCL to be included on stock certificates.

The Corporation shall be entitled to treat the holder of record of any share of stock as the holder in fact thereof and, accordingly, shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise expressly provided by the laws of the State of Maryland.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, transfers of shares of any class or series of stock will be subject in all respects to the charter of the Corporation and all of the terms and conditions contained therein.

Section 3. REPLACEMENT CERTIFICATE. Any officer of the Corporation may direct a new certificate or certificates to be issued in place of any certificate or certificates theretofore issued by the Corporation alleged to have been lost, destroyed, stolen or mutilated, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, destroyed, stolen or mutilated; provided, however, if such shares have ceased to be certificated, no new certificate shall be issued unless requested in writing by such stockholder and the Board of Directors has determined that such certificates may be issued. Unless otherwise determined by an officer of the Corporation, the owner of such lost, destroyed, stolen or mutilated certificate or certificates, or his or her legal representative, shall be required, as a condition precedent to the issuance of a new certificate or certificates, to give the Corporation a bond in such sums as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the Corporation.

Section 4. FIXING OF RECORD DATE. The Board of Directors may set, in advance, a record date for the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or determining stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or the allotment of any other rights, or in order to make a determination of stockholders for any other proper purpose. Such date, in any case, shall not be prior to the close of business on the day the record date is fixed and shall be not more than 90 days and, in the case of a meeting of stockholders, not less than 10 days, before the date on which the meeting or particular action requiring such determination of stockholders of record is to be held or taken.

When a record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to notice of and to vote at any meeting of stockholders has been set as provided in this section, such record date shall continue to apply to the meeting if adjourned or postponed, except if the meeting is adjourned or postponed to a date more than 120 days after the record date originally fixed for the meeting, in which case a new record date for such meeting may be determined as set forth herein.

Section 5. STOCK LEDGER. The Corporation shall maintain at its principal office or at the office of its counsel, accountants or transfer agent, an original or duplicate stock ledger containing the name and address of each stockholder and the number of shares of each class held by such stockholder.


Section 6. FRACTIONAL STOCK; ISSUANCE OF UNITS. The Board of Directors may authorize the Corporation to issue fractional stock or authorize the issuance of scrip, all on such terms and under such conditions as it may determine. Notwithstanding any other provision of the charter or these Bylaws, the Board of Directors may issue units consisting of different securities of the Corporation. Any security issued in a unit shall have the same characteristics as any identical securities issued by the Corporation, except that the Board of Directors may provide that for a specified period securities of the Corporation issued in such unit may be transferred on the books of the Corporation only in such unit.

Section 7. EXCLUSIVE FORUM. To the fullest extent permitted by law, unless the Corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Corporation, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of the Corporation to the Corporation or the Corporation’s stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Maryland General Corporation Law, the Corporation’s charter or these Bylaws or the securities, antifraud, unfair trade practices or similar laws of any international, national, state, provincial, territorial, local or other governmental or regulatory authority, including, in each case, the applicable rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, or (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall be a federal or state court located in the state of Delaware, provided that to the extent the appropriate court located in the state of Delaware determines that it does not have jurisdiction over such action, then the sole and exclusive forum shall be any federal or state court located in the state of Maryland. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of capital stock of the Corporation shall be deemed, to the fullest extent permitted by law, to have notice of and consented to the provisions of this Section 7 and to have irrevocably submitted to, and waived any objection to, the exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in connection with any such action or proceeding and consented to process being served in any such action or proceeding, without limitation, by United States mail addressed to the stockholder at the stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the Corporation, with postage thereon prepaid.

ARTICLE VIII

ACCOUNTING YEAR

The Board of Directors shall have the power, from time to time, to fix the fiscal year of the Corporation by a duly adopted resolution.

ARTICLE IX

DISTRIBUTIONS

Section 1. AUTHORIZATION. Dividends and other distributions upon the stock of the Corporation may be authorized by the Board of Directors, subject to the provisions of law and the charter of the Corporation. Dividends and other distributions may be paid in cash, property or stock of the Corporation, subject to the provisions of law and the charter.


Section 2. CONTINGENCIES. Before payment of any dividends or other distributions, there may be set aside out of any assets of the Corporation available for dividends or other distributions such sum or sums as the Board of Directors may from time to time, in its absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve fund for contingencies, for equalizing dividends, for repairing or maintaining any property of the Corporation or for such other purpose as the Board of Directors shall determine, and the Board of Directors may modify or abolish any such reserve.

ARTICLE X

SEAL

Section 1. SEAL. The Board of Directors may authorize the adoption of a seal by the Corporation. The seal shall contain the name of the Corporation and the year of its incorporation and the words “Incorporated Maryland.” The Board of Directors may authorize one or more duplicate seals and provide for the custody thereof.

Section 2. AFFIXING SEAL. Whenever the Corporation is permitted or required to affix its seal to a document, it shall be sufficient to meet the requirements of any law, rule or regulation relating to a seal to place the word “(SEAL)” adjacent to the signature of the person authorized to execute the document on behalf of the Corporation.

ARTICLE XI

INDEMNIFICATION AND ADVANCE OF EXPENSES

To the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law or the Investment Company Act in effect from time to time, the Corporation shall indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, shall pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to (a) any individual who is a present or former director or officer of the Corporation and who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity or (b) any individual who, while a director or officer of the Corporation and at the request of the Corporation, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, trustee, member or manager of another corporation, real estate investment trust, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The rights to indemnification and advance of expenses provided by the charter of the Corporation and these Bylaws shall vest immediately upon election of a director or officer. The Corporation may, with the approval of its Board of Directors, provide such indemnification and advance for expenses to an individual who served a predecessor of the Corporation in any of the capacities described in (a) or (b) above and to any employee or agent of the Corporation or a predecessor of the Corporation. The indemnification and payment or reimbursement of expenses provided in these Bylaws shall not be deemed exclusive of or limit in any way other rights to which any person seeking indemnification or payment or reimbursement of expenses may be or may become entitled under any bylaw, resolution, insurance, agreement or otherwise.

Neither the amendment nor repeal of this Article, nor the adoption or amendment of any other provision of the charter of the Corporation or these Bylaws inconsistent with this Article, shall apply to or affect in any respect the applicability of the preceding paragraph with respect to any act or failure to act which occurred prior to such amendment, repeal or adoption.


No provision of this Article XI shall be effective to protect or purport to protect any director or officer of the Corporation against liability to the Corporation or its stockholders to which he or she would otherwise be subject by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of his or her office.

ARTICLE XII

WAIVER OF NOTICE

Whenever any notice is required to be given pursuant to the charter of the Corporation or these Bylaws or pursuant to applicable law, a waiver thereof in writing or by electronic transmission, given by the person or persons entitled to such notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to the giving of such notice. Neither the business to be transacted at nor the purpose of any meeting need be set forth in the waiver of notice of such meeting, unless specifically required by statute. The attendance of any person at any meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except where such person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting to the transaction of any business on the ground that the meeting has not been lawfully called or convened.

ARTICLE XIII

INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT

If and to the extent that any provision of the MGCL, including, without limitation, Subtitle 6 and, if then applicable, Subtitle 7, of Title 3 of the MGCL, or any provision of the charter or these Bylaws conflicts with any provision of the Investment Company Act, the applicable provision of the Investment Company Act shall control.

ARTICLE XIV

AMENDMENT OF BYLAWS

The Board of Directors shall have the exclusive power, at any time, to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of these Bylaws and to make new Bylaws.

EX-4.1

Exhibit 4.1

Copy No.:

For the Exclusive Use of:

April 5, 2013

Form of Subscription Documents For

CARLYLE GMS FINANCE, INC.


Copy No.:

For the Exclusive Use of:

 

DIRECTIONS FOR THE COMPLETION

OF THE SUBSCRIPTION DOCUMENTS

Prospective investors must complete the Subscription Agreement (the “Subscription Agreement”), the Investor Questionnaire (the “Investor Questionnaire”) and any necessary attachments (the Subscription Agreement, the Investor Questionnaire and all such attachments collectively, the “Subscription Documents”) contained in this package in the manner described below. Capitalized terms not defined herein are used as defined in the Confidential Private Placement Memorandum of Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc., a Maryland Corporation (as amended from time to time). For purposes of these Subscription Documents, the “Investor” is the person or entity for whose account the common stock is being purchased and that can satisfy the representations and warranties set forth in the Subscription Documents. Another person or entity with investment authority may execute the Subscription Documents on behalf of the Investor, but should indicate the capacity in which it is doing so and the name of the Investor.

1. Subscription Agreement:

(a) Each Investor should fill in the amount of the Capital Commitment, date, print the name of the Investor and sign (and print name, capacity and title of signatory, if applicable) on page 22.

(b) Each Investor should complete the acknowledgment form substantially in the form of Appendix F (making any changes to reflect the Investor’s circumstances).

2. Investor Questionnaire:

(a) In Section A, each Investor should fill in its name, type of entity, address, tax identification or social security number, contact person(s), telephone and facsimile numbers, email address, and the other requested information.

(b) Each Investor should check the box or boxes in Section B which are next to the category or categories under which the Investor qualifies as an “accredited investor”.

(c) Each Investor that is an individual should respond to the question in Section C.

(d) Each Investor that is an entity should provide the information and respond to the questions in Section D.

(e) Each Investor should respond to the questions in Section E.

(f) Each Investor should check the box or boxes in Section F that are next to the category or categories under which the Investor qualifies as either a “qualified purchaser” or “knowledgeable employee.”

(g) Each Investor should respond to the questions in Section G.

 

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(h) Each Investor should respond to the questions in Section H.

(i) Print the name of the Investor and sign (and print name, capacity and title of signatory, if applicable) on page 15 of the Investor Questionnaire.

3. Customer Identification Program — Documentation Requirements (if the documentation may have previously been submitted, please contact the Company to confirm.)

(a) Formation:

Organized entities, including corporations, partnerships, limited liability companies, and trusts: provide a certificate of formation and formation agreement.

(b) Identification:

Investors who are natural persons: provide a current (i.e. non-expired) copy of a government issued photo identification.

Corporations, partnerships, limited liability companies, and trusts: provide a current (i.e. non-expired) copy of a government issued photo identification of natural persons who ultimately, directly or indirectly, benefit from 10% or more of the proceeds of the entity or hold 10% or more of the control rights.

Upon review of the above documents, the Company may require additional documentation in order to satisfy its requirements for Know Your Customer and Anti-Money Laundering.

4. Tax Forms:

Each U.S. Investor is required to fill in and sign and date the attached Form W-9 and each non-U.S. investor is required to fill in and date the relevant Form(s) W-8 (W-8BEN, W-8IMY, W-8ECI or W-8EXP), as applicable, in accordance with the instructions to such Form, and in the event that any applicable reduction or exemption from U.S. federal withholding tax is claimed, is required to provide all applicable attachments or addendums as required to claim such exemption or reduction.

5. Evidence of Authorization:

Each Investor must provide valid evidence of authorization, such as a list of authorized agents, and a current copy of a government issued photo identification for the individual(s) authorized to sign the Subscription Documents.

For Corporations:

Generally, Investors which are corporations must submit certified corporate resolutions authorizing the subscription and identifying the corporate officer empowered to sign the Subscription Documents.

 

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For Partnerships:

Partnerships must submit a certified copy of the partnership certificate (in the case of limited partnerships) or partnership agreement identifying the general partners.

For Limited Liability Companies:

Limited liability companies must submit a certified copy of the limited liability operating agreement or certificate of formation identifying the manager or managing member, as applicable, empowered to sign the Subscription Documents.

For Trusts:

Trusts must submit a copy of the trust agreement.

For Employee Benefit Plans:

Employee benefit plans must submit a certificate of an appropriate officer certifying that the subscription has been authorized and identifying the individual empowered to sign the Subscription Documents.

6. Delivery of Subscription Documents:

Two (2) original completed and executed copies of the Subscription Agreement and the Investor Questionnaire, together with the Form W-9 or W-8, (W-8BEN, W-8IMY, W-8ECI or W-8EXP), as applicable, the acknowledgment form and any required evidence of authorization, should be delivered to the Company at the following address:

State Street Bank & Trust Co.

Attn: Transfer Agency JHT1651

200 Clarendon Street

Boston, MA 02116

In addition, please send (i) the completed and executed Subscription Agreement, (ii) the completed and executed Investor Questionnaire, (iii) the completed and executed acknowledgment form, (iv) the completed Form W-9 or W-8 (W-8BEN, W-8IMY, W-8ECI or W-8EXP), as applicable, and (v) any required evidence of authorization to State Street by facsimile to the attention of “Multi Client Operations”, at [] as soon as possible.

Inquiries regarding subscription procedures (including if the Investor Questionnaire indicates that any Investor’s response to a question requires further information) should be directed to [] or []@Carlyle.com. If the Investor’s subscription is accepted (in whole or in part) by the Company, a fully executed set of the Subscription Documents will be returned to the Investor.

 

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7. Wire Instructions:

In connection with an Investor’s investment, the Investor shall be required to contribute capital pursuant to Funding Notices (as defined below). Upon receipt of a Funding Notice, payment shall be sent by wire transfer pursuant to the wire instructions set forth below. Notwithstanding the foregoing, wire instructions may change in the sole discretion of the Company. Therefore, Investors should wire funds in accordance with the wire instructions set forth in any Funding Notice issued by the Company. To the extent there is any discrepancy in the wire instructions set forth below and the wire instructions set forth in a Funding Notice, the wire instructions in such Funding Notice shall prevail.

Please wire funds to:

 

Bank:

   []

ABA #:

   []

Account A/C:

   []

Bank A/C Name:

   Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc.

Notation:

   «InvestorName»

Furthermore, Investors from time to time may be required to pay a Placement Fee (as defined below). Upon receipt of a Placement Fee Funding Notice (as defined below), payment shall be sent by wire transfer pursuant to the instructions set forth in Appendix E. Notwithstanding the foregoing, wire instructions may change in the sole discretion of the Company. Therefore, Investors should wire funds in accordance with the wire instructions set forth in any Placement Fee Funding Notice issued by the Company. To the extent there is any discrepancy in the wire instructions set forth below and the wire instructions set forth in a Placement Fee Funding Notice, the wire instructions in such Placement Fee Funding Notice shall prevail. A Placement Fee Funding Notice may, in the discretion of the Company, be combined with a Funding Notice.

[remainder of page intentionally left blank]

 

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SUBSCRIPTION AGREEMENT

Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc.

c/o State Street Bank & Trust Co.

One Lincoln Street

Boston, MA 02111

Ladies and Gentlemen:

1. Subscription.

(a) The undersigned (the “Investor”) subscribes for and agrees to purchase shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, (“Shares”) in Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc. (“Carlyle GMS Finance” or the “Company”) with a capital commitment (“Capital Commitment”) in the amount set forth on the signature page below. The Investor acknowledges and agrees that this subscription (i) is irrevocable on the part of the Investor, (ii) is conditioned upon acceptance by or on behalf of the Company, and (iii) may be accepted or rejected in whole or in part by the Company in its sole discretion. The Investor agrees to be bound by all the terms and provisions of the Company’s Confidential Private Placement Memorandum, as amended, restated and/or supplemented from time to time (the “Memorandum”), the Company’s Bylaws, substantially in the form attached hereto as Appendix A, as amended from time to time (the “Bylaws”), the Company’s Charter, substantially in the form attached hereto as Appendix B, as amended from time to time (the “Charter”), the Investment Advisory Agreement with Carlyle GMS Investment Management L.L.C., our investment adviser (the “Adviser”), substantially in the form attached hereto as Appendix C, as amended from time to time (the “Advisory Agreement”), the Administration Agreement between the Company and Carlyle GMS Finance Administration L.L.C., our administrator (the “Administrator”), substantially in the form attached hereto as Appendix D, as amended from time to time (the “Administration Agreement,” and together with the Memorandum, the Bylaws, the Charter and the Advisory Agreement, the “Operative Documents”), together with this Subscription Agreement (the “Subscription Agreement”). Capitalized terms not defined herein are used as defined in the Memorandum. The Company expects to enter into separate Subscription Agreements (the “Other Subscription Agreements,” and, together with this Subscription Agreement, the “Subscription Agreements”) with other investors (the “Other Investors,” and together with the Investor, the “Investors”), providing for the sale of Shares to the Other Investors. This Subscription Agreement and the Other Subscription Agreements are separate agreements, and the sales of Shares to the undersigned and the Other Investors are separate sales.

(b) The Investor agrees to purchase Shares for an aggregate purchase price equal to its Capital Commitment, payable at such times and in such amounts as required by the Company, under the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein. On each Capital Drawdown Date (as defined below), the Investor agrees to purchase from the Company, and the Company agrees to issue to the Investor, a number of Shares equal to the Drawdown Share Amount (as defined below) at an aggregate price equal to the Drawdown Purchase Price (as defined below); provided, however, that in no circumstance will an Investor be required to purchase Shares for an amount in excess of its Unused Capital Commitment (as defined below).

 

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“Drawdown Purchase Price” shall mean, for each Capital Drawdown Date, an amount in U.S. dollars determined by multiplying (i) the aggregate amount of Capital Commitments being drawn down by the Company from all Investors on that Capital Drawdown Date, by (ii) a fraction, the numerator of which is the Unused Capital Commitment of the Investor and the denominator of which is the aggregate Unused Capital Commitments of all Investors that are not Defaulting Investors or Excluded Investors (as defined below).

“Drawdown Share Amount” shall mean, for each Capital Drawdown Date, a number of Shares determined by dividing (i) the Drawdown Purchase Price for that Capital Drawdown Date by (ii) the applicable Per Share Price (as defined below), with the resulting quotient adjusted to the nearest whole number to avoid the issuance of fractional shares.

“Per Share NAV” shall mean, for any Capital Drawdown Date or Catch-Up Date (as defined below), the net asset value per Share, as determined by the Company’s Board of Directors (including any committee of the Board, the “Board”), as of the end of the most recent calendar quarter prior to the date of the Funding Notice (as defined below).

“Per Share Price” shall mean, for any Capital Drawdown Date or Catch-Up Date (as defined below), the Per Share NAV; provided, that the Per Share Price shall be subject to the limitations of Section 23 under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”); provided further, however, in the event that the Per Share NAV is less than zero as of the first Capital Drawdown Date that occurs immediately following the Initial Closing Date (as defined below), then solely for the purpose of such Capital Drawdown Date, the Per Share Price shall be deemed to equal $20.00.

“Unused Capital Commitment” shall mean, with respect to an Investor, the amount of such Investor’s Capital Commitment as of any date reduced by the aggregate amount of contributions made by that Investor at all previous Capital Drawdown Dates and any Catch-Up Date pursuant to Section 1(b) and Section 2(c), respectively.

2. Closings.

(a) The initial closing of this Subscription Agreement will take place on such date as determined by the Company at the offices of the Adviser, 520 Madison Avenue, 38th Floor, New York, New York (such date being the “Initial Closing Date,” and the date on which each subsequent closing occurs, a “Subsequent Closing Date”, and each Subsequent Closing Date with the Initial Closing Date shall be referred to herein as the “Closing Date”).

(b) The Investor agrees to provide any information reasonably requested by the Company to verify the accuracy of the representations contained herein, including without limitation the investor questionnaire (the “Investor Questionnaire”). Promptly after the Closing Date, the Company will deliver to the Investor or its representative, if the Investor’s subscription has been accepted, a countersigned copy of this Subscription Agreement and other documents and instruments necessary to reflect the Investor’s status as an investor in the Company, including any documents and instruments to be delivered pursuant to this Subscription Agreement.

 

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(c) The Company may enter into Other Subscription Agreements with Other Investors on a Subsequent Closing Date and any Other Investor whose subscription has been accepted at such Subsequent Closing Date referred to as a “Subsequent Investor.” Notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 1(b) and 3, on one or more dates to be determined by the Company that occur on or following the Subsequent Closing Date but no later than the next succeeding Capital Drawdown Date (each, a “Catch-Up Date”), each Subsequent Investor shall be required to purchase from the Company a number of Shares with an aggregate purchase price necessary to ensure that, upon payment of the aggregate purchase price for such Shares by the Subsequent Investor in the aggregate for all Catch-Up Dates, such Subsequent Investor’s Invested Percentage (as defined below) shall be equal to the Invested Percentage of all prior Investors (other than any Defaulting Investors or Excluded Investors) (the “Catch-Up Purchase Price”). Upon payment of the Catch-Up Purchase Price by the Investor on a Catch-Up Date and payment by Other Investors of the requisite amount, the Company shall issue to each such Subsequent Investor a number of Shares determined by dividing (x) the Catch-Up Purchase Price for such Subsequent Investor minus the Organizational Expense Allocation (as defined below) by (y) the Per Share Price for such Subsequent Investor as of a Catch-Up Date. For the avoidance of doubt, in the event that the Catch-Up Date and a Capital Drawdown Date occur on the same calendar day, such Catch-Up Date (and the application of the provisions of this Section 2(c)) shall be deemed to have occurred immediately prior to the relevant Capital Drawdown Date.

“Invested Percentage” means, with respect to an Investor, the quotient determined by dividing (i) the aggregate amount of contributions made by such Investor pursuant to Section 1(b) and this Section 2(c) by (ii) such Investor’s Capital Commitment.

“Organizational Expense Allocation” means, with respect to an Investor, the product obtained by multiplying (i) a fraction, the numerator of which is such Investor’s Capital Commitment and the denominator of which is the total Capital Commitments received by the Company to date by (ii) the lesser of (a) a dollar amount equal to one million five hundred thousand dollars ($1,500,000) or (b) the total amount of organizational expenses spent by the Company in connection with the Company’s formation.

(d) At each Capital Drawdown Date following any Subsequent Closing Date, all Investors, including Subsequent Investors, shall purchase Shares in accordance with the provisions of Section 1(b); provided, however, that notwithstanding the foregoing, the definitions of Drawdown Share Amount and Per Share Price and the provisions of Section 3(b), nothing in this Subscription Agreement shall prohibit the Company from issuing Shares to Subsequent Investors whose subscriptions are accepted after the Closing Date at a Per Share Price greater than the Per Share NAV at the time of issuance.

(e) In the event that any Investor is permitted by the Company to make an additional capital commitment to purchase Shares on a date after its initial subscription has been accepted, such Investor will be required to enter into a separate Subscription Agreement with the Company, it being understood and agreed that such separate Subscription Agreement will be considered to be an Other Subscription Agreement for the purposes of this Subscription Agreement.

 

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3. Capital Drawdowns.

(a) Subject to Section 3(f), purchases of Shares will take place on dates selected by the Company in its sole discretion (each, a “Capital Drawdown Date”) and shall be made in accordance with the provisions of Section 1(b).

(b) The Company shall deliver to the Investor, at least ten (10) Business Days prior to each Capital Drawdown Date, a notice (a “Funding Notice”) setting forth (i) the Capital Drawdown Date, (ii) the nature of the proposed investment(s) for which capital is being drawn down, (iii) the aggregate number of Shares to be sold to all Investors on the Capital Drawdown Date and the aggregate purchase price for such Shares, (iv) the applicable Drawdown Share Amount, Drawdown Purchase Price and Per Share Price and (v) the account to which the Drawdown Purchase Price should be wired. For the purposes of this Subscription Agreement, the term “Business Day” shall have the meaning ascribed to it in Rule 14d-1(g)(3) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “1934 Act”).

(c) The delivery of a Funding Notice to the Investor shall be the sole and exclusive condition to the Investor’s obligation to pay the Drawdown Share Purchase Price identified in each Funding Notice, and shall represent the Company’s acceptance of the Investor’s irrevocable and ongoing offer to purchase Shares.

(d) On each Capital Drawdown Date, the Investor shall pay the Drawdown Purchase Price to the Company by bank wire transfer in immediately available funds in U.S. dollars to the account specified in the Funding Notice.

(e) State Street Bank and Trust Company will act as transfer agent and registrar for the Shares (the “Transfer Agent”), unless and until, either the Company or the Transfer Agent decides to terminate the agreement between the parties.

(f) At the earlier of (i) the date of a Qualified IPO (as defined below), if any, and (ii) the fifth anniversary of the Initial Closing Date (the period ending on such date being the “Commitment Period”), any Unused Capital Commitment (other than any Defaulted Commitment (as defined below)) shall automatically be reduced to zero, except to the extent necessary to pay amounts due under Funding Notices that the Company may thereafter issue to: (a) pay Company expenses, including management fees, any amounts that may become due under any borrowings or other financings or similar obligations and any other liabilities, contingent or otherwise, in each case to the extent they relate to the Commitment Period, (b) complete investments in any transactions for which there are binding written agreements as of the end of the Commitment Period (including investments that are funded in phases), (c) fund follow-on investments made in existing portfolio companies within three (3) years from the end of the Commitment Period that, in the aggregate, do not exceed five percent (5%) of total Capital Commitments, (d) fund obligations under any Company guarantee or indemnity made during the Commitment Period and (e) fulfill obligations with respect to any Defaulted Commitment. Furthermore, the Investor will still be subject to any Placement Fees (as defined below) due under any Placement Fee Funding Notices (as defined below). A “Qualified IPO” shall mean an initial public offering of the Company’s common stock that results in an unaffiliated public float of at least 15% of the aggregate Capital Commitments received prior to the date of such initial public offering.

 

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(g) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Subscription Agreement, the Company shall have the right (a “Limited Exclusion Right”) to exclude any Investor (such Investor, an “Excluded Investor”) from purchasing Shares from the Company on any Capital Drawdown date if, in the reasonable discretion of the Company, there is a substantial likelihood that such Investor’s purchase of Shares at such time would (i) result in a violation of, or noncompliance with, any law or regulation to which such Investor, the Company, the Adviser, any Other Investor or a portfolio company would be subject or (ii) cause the investments of “Benefit Plan Investors” (within the meaning of Section 3(42) of the U.S. Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”) and certain Department of Labor regulations) to be significant and the assets of the Company to be considered “plan assets” under ERISA or Section 4975 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”).

(h) Pursuant to a placement agent agreement (“Placement Agreement”) by and between the Company and TCG Securities, L.L.C. (“TCG Securities”), certain Investors will be required to pay a placement fee (a “Placement Fee”) directly to TCG Securities (or as otherwise set forth in the Placement Fee Funding Notice), equal to amounts as set forth in Appendix E, provided that the Placement Fee will be waived for certain Investors, including Investors that Company determines, in its sole discretion, to have been sourced by the Company, the Adviser, TCG Securities or their respective affiliates. Separate agreements with other broker-dealers may be entered into for their assistance in sourcing qualified investors. TCG Securities will pay fees to these other brokers, which may include some or all of the Placement Fees paid to TCG Securities by the Investors sourced by that broker-dealer. Investors sourced by other broker-dealers may be charged a fee, in addition to the Placement Fee, by that broker of up to 2% of the Investors’ Capital Commitment, in the discretion of that broker. Investors are required to acknowledge such Placement Fee by signing a disclosure and acknowledgement substantially in the form of Appendix F. At the time such Placement Fee is due (the “Placement Fee Drawdown Date”), the Company shall deliver to the Investor, at least ten (10) Business Days prior to the Placement Fee Drawdown Date, a notice (a “Placement Fee Funding Notice”) setting forth the Placement Fee Drawdown Date, the amount of the Placement Fee being drawn down and the account to which the Placement Fee should be wired. The delivery of a Placement Fee Funding Notice shall be the sole and exclusive condition to the Investor’s obligation to pay the Placement Fee identified in the Placement Fee Funding Notice. On each Placement Fee Drawdown Date, the Investor shall pay the Placement Fee to TCG Securities (or as otherwise set forth in the Placement Fee Funding Notice) by bank wire transfer in immediately available funds in U.S. dollars to the account specified in the Placement Fee Funding Notice.

4. Pledging. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the Investor specifically agrees and consents that the Company may, at any time, and without further notice to or consent from the Investor (except to the extent otherwise provided in this Subscription Agreement), grant security over and, in connection therewith, Transfer (as defined in Section 8(d)) its right to draw down capital from the Investor pursuant to Section 3, and the Company’s right to receive the Drawdown Share Purchase Price (and any related rights of the Company), to lenders or other creditors of the Company, in connection with any indebtedness, guarantee or

 

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surety of the Company; provided, that, for the avoidance of doubt, any such grantee’s right to draw down capital shall be subject to the limitations on the Company’s right to draw down capital pursuant to Section 3.

5. Dividends; Dividend Reinvestment Program.

(a) As described more fully in the Memorandum, the Company generally intends to distribute, out of assets legally available for distribution, substantially all of its available earnings, on a quarterly basis, subject to the discretion of the Board. Prior to the occurrence of a Qualified IPO, the Company will adopt a plan in which the Company will reinvest all cash dividends declared by the Board on behalf of Investors who do not elect to receive their dividends in cash, crediting to each such Investor a number of Shares equal to: (i) prior to a Qualified IPO, the quotient determined by dividing the cash value of the dividend or distribution payable to such Investor by the net asset value per Share determined as of the valuation date fixed by the Board for such dividend (each, a “Valuation Date”), and (ii) after a Qualified IPO, (x) if such plan is implemented through the issuance of newly issued shares, the quotient determined by dividing the cash value of the dividend or distribution payable to such Investor by the market price per Share on the relevant Valuation Date or (y) if such plan is implemented through the purchase of existing Shares, the quotient determined by dividing the cash value of the dividend or distribution payable to such Investor by the average purchase price per Share of all Shares purchased with respect to that dividend or distribution. The Investor may elect to receive any or all such dividends in cash by notifying the plan administrator, State Street Bank and Trust Co., or, in the case of Investors whose shares are held by a broker or other financial intermediary, such broker or other financial intermediary, writing no later than 10 days prior to the record date for the first dividend that the Investor wishes to receive in that form. The Investor and the Company agree and acknowledge that any dividends received by the Investor or reinvested by the Company on the Investor’s behalf shall have no effect on the amount of the Investor’s Unfunded Commitment.

(b) The Company represents and warrants that it shall not make any in-kind distributions consisting of securities that are not Marketable Securities or common stock of the Company except in connection with liquidation distributions conducted in connection with the dissolution of the Company in accordance with the Maryland General Corporation Law. “Marketable Securities” means securities which are traded or quoted on the New York Stock Exchange, American Stock Exchange or the Nasdaq Global Market or on a comparable securities market or exchange now or in the future.

 

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6. Remedies Upon Investor Capital Drawdown Default. In the event that an Investor fails to pay all or any portion of the purchase price due from such Investor on any Capital Drawdown Date (such amount, together with the full amount of such Investor’s remaining Capital Commitment, a “Defaulted Commitment”) and such default remains uncured for a period of ten (10) Business Days, the Company shall be permitted to declare such Investor to be in default of its obligations under this Subscription Agreement (any such Investor, a “Defaulting Investor”) and shall be permitted to pursue one or any combination of the following remedies:

(a) The Company may prohibit the Defaulting Investor from purchasing additional Shares on any future Capital Drawdown Date or otherwise participating in any future investments in the Company;

(b) Fifty percent (50%) of the Shares then held by the Defaulting Investor shall be automatically transferred on the books of the Company, without any further action being required on the part of the Company or the Defaulting Investor, to the Other Investors (other than any defaulting Other Investor), pro rata in accordance with their respective Capital Commitments; provided, however, that notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Subscription Agreement, no Shares shall be transferred to any Other Investor pursuant to this Section 6(b) in the event that such Transfer (as defined in Section 8(d)) would (x) violate the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”), 1940 Act or any state (or other jurisdiction) securities or “Blue Sky” laws applicable to the Company or such Transfer (as defined in Section 8(d)), (y) constitute a non-exempt “prohibited transaction” under Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code or (z) cause all or any portion of the assets of the Company to constitute “plan assets” under ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code (it being understood that this proviso shall operate only to extent necessary to avoid the occurrence of the consequences contemplated herein and shall not prevent the Investor from receiving a partial allocation of its pro rata portion of Shares); provided further, that any Shares that have not been transferred to one or more Other Investors pursuant to the previous proviso shall be allocated among the participating Other Investors pro rata in accordance with their respective Capital Commitments. The mechanism described in this Section 6(b) is intended to operate as a liquidated damage provision, since the damage to the Company and Other Investors resulting from a default by the Defaulting Investor is both significant and not easily susceptible to precise quantification. By entry into this Subscription Agreement, the Investor agrees to this Transfer (as defined in Section 8(d)) and acknowledges that it constitutes a reasonable liquidated damage remedy for any default in the Investor’s obligation of the type described; and

(c) The Company may pursue any other remedies against the Defaulting Investor available to the Company, subject to applicable law. The Investor agrees that this Section 6 is solely for the benefit of the Company and shall be interpreted by the Company against a Defaulting Investor in the discretion of the Company. The Investor further agrees that the Investor cannot and will not seek to enforce this Section 6 against the Company or any other investor in the Company.

7. Remedies Upon Investor Placement Fee Default. (a) In the event that an Investor fails to pay all or any portion of the Placement Fee (a “Placement Fee Default”) due from such Investor on any Placement Fee Drawdown Date (the defaulted amount being the “Defaulted Placement Fee Amount”) and such Placement Fee Default remains uncured for a period of ten (10) Business Days, the Company shall be permitted to declare such Investor to be in default of its obligations under this Subscription Agreement (any such Investor, a “Placement Fee Defaulting Investor”) and shall be permitted to prohibit the Placement Fee Defaulting Investor from purchasing additional Shares on any future Capital Drawdown Date.

(b) In addition, the Investor acknowledges that in the event of a Placement Fee Default, TCG Securities may transfer a number of Shares equal to the quotient of the Defaulted Placement Fee Amount divided by the net asset value per Share (as last calculated by

 

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the Board) then held by the Placement Fee Defaulting Investor to TCG Securities, without any further action being required on the part of the Company or the Placement Fee Defaulting Investor; provided, however, that notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Subscription Agreement, no Shares shall be transferred to TCG Securities pursuant to this Section 7(b) in the event that such Transfer (as defined in Section 8(d)) would (x) violate the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”), 1940 Act or any state (or other jurisdiction) securities or “Blue Sky” laws applicable to the Company or such Transfer (as defined in Section 8(d)), (y) constitute a non-exempt “prohibited transaction” under Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code or (z) cause all or any portion of the assets of the Company to constitute “plan assets” under ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code (it being understood that this proviso shall operate only to extent necessary to avoid the occurrence of the consequences contemplated herein and shall not prevent the TCG Securities from receiving a partial allocation of Shares). By entry into this Subscription Agreement, the Investor agrees to this Transfer (as defined in Section 8(d)) and acknowledges that it constitutes a reasonable liquidated damage remedy for any default in the Investor’s obligation of the type described.

(c) Nothing in this Subscription Agreement shall be construed as limiting the rights of TCG Securities in the event of a Placement Fee Default, and TCG Securities may pursue any other remedies against any Placement Fee Defaulting Investor available to TCG Securities, subject to applicable law. The Investor agrees that this Section 7 is solely for the benefit of the Company and shall be interpreted by the Company against a Placement Fee Defaulting Investor in the discretion of the Company. The Investor further agrees that the Investor cannot and will not seek to enforce this Section 7 against the Company, TCG Securities or any other investor in the Company.

8. Representations and Warranties of the Investor. To induce the Company to accept this subscription, the Investor represents and warrants as follows:

(a) This Subscription Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Investor and, upon due authorization, execution and delivery by the Company, will constitute the valid and legally binding agreement of the Investor enforceable in accordance with its terms against the Investor, except as such enforceability may be limited by (i) bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, fraudulent conveyance, moratorium or other laws of general application relating to or affecting the enforcement of creditors’ rights and remedies, as from time to time in effect; (ii) application of equitable principles (regardless of whether such enforceability is considered in a proceeding in equity or at law); and (iii) considerations of public policy or the effect of applicable law relating to fiduciary duties.

(b) The Shares to be acquired hereunder are being acquired by the Investor for the Investor’s own account for investment purposes only and not with a view to resale or distribution.

(c) The Investor understands that the Company intends to file elections to be treated as (i) a business development company under the 1940 Act and (ii) a regulated investment company within the meaning of Section 851 of the Code, for U.S. federal income tax purposes; pursuant to those elections, the Investor will be required to furnish certain information to the Company as required under Treasury Regulations § 1.852-6(a) and other regulations. If the

 

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Investor is unable or refuses to provide such information directly to the Company, the Investor understands that it will be required to include additional information on its income tax return as provided in Treasury Regulation § 1.852-7. The Company has filed a registration statement on Form 10 (the “Form 10 Registration Statement”) for its common stock with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) under the 1934 Act. The Form 10 Registration Statement is not the offering document pursuant to which the Company is conducting this offering and may not include all information regarding the Company contained in this Memorandum; accordingly, Investors should rely exclusively on information contained in the Operative Documents in making their investment decisions.

(d)(i) The Investor understands that the offering and sale of the Shares are intended to be exempt from registration under the 1933 Act, applicable U.S. state securities laws and the laws of any non-U.S. jurisdictions by virtue of the private placement exemption from registration provided in Section 4(2) of the 1933 Act, exemptions under applicable U.S. state securities laws and exemptions under the laws of any non-U.S. jurisdictions, and it agrees that any Shares acquired by the Investor may not be sold, offered for sale, exchanged, transferred, assigned, pledged, hypothecated or otherwise disposed of (each, a “Transfer”) in any manner that would require the Company to register the Shares under the 1933 Act, under any U.S. state securities laws or under the laws of any non-U.S. jurisdictions. The Investor understands that the Company requires each investor in the Company to be an “accredited investor” as defined in Rule 501(a) of Regulation D of the 1933 Act (“Accredited Investor”) and the Investor represents and warrants that it is an Accredited Investor.

(ii) The Investor understands that the offering and sale of the Shares in non-U.S. jurisdictions may be subject to additional restrictions and limitations, and represents and warrants that it is acquiring its Shares in compliance with all applicable laws, rules, regulations and other legal requirements applicable to the Investor including, without limitation, the legal requirements of jurisdictions in which the Investor is resident and in which such acquisition is being consummated. Furthermore, the Investor understands that all offerings and sales made outside of the United States will be made pursuant to Regulation S under the 1933 Act.

(e)(i) The Investor may not Transfer its Capital Commitment or, prior to a Qualified IPO, any of its Shares unless (a) the Company provides its prior written consent, (b) the Transfer is made in accordance with applicable securities laws and (c) the Transfer is otherwise in compliance with the transfer restrictions set forth in Appendix G. No Transfer will be effectuated except by registration of the Transfer on the Company books. Each transferee must agree to be bound by these restrictions and all other obligations as an investor in the Company. Following a Qualified IPO, the Investor will be restricted from selling or disposing of its Shares by applicable securities laws, contractually by a lock-up agreement with the underwriters of the Qualified IPO or a Secondary Offering (as defined in Appendix H), and pursuant to the terms of this Subscription Agreement.

(ii) The Investor acknowledges that the Investor is aware and understands that there are other substantial restrictions on the transferability of Shares or Capital Commitment under this Subscription Agreement, the Operative Documents and under applicable law including, but not limited to, the fact that (a) there is no established

 

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market for the Shares and it is possible that no public market for the Shares will develop; (b) the Shares are not currently, and Investors have no rights prior to a Qualified IPO to require that the Shares be, registered under the 1933 Act or the securities laws of the various states or any non-U.S. jurisdiction and therefore cannot be Transferred unless subsequently registered or unless an exemption from such registration is available; and (c) the Investor may have to hold the Shares herein subscribed for and bear the economic risk of this investment indefinitely, and it may not be possible for the Investor to liquidate its investment in the Company.

(f) The Investor acknowledges and understands that for a period beginning on the date of the completion of a Qualified IPO and continuing to and including the earlier of (i) 180 days after the closing of the final Secondary Offering provided for pursuant to Appendix H hereof or (ii) the second anniversary of the completion of the Qualified IPO, the Investor will not, without the prior written consent of the Company, (i) sell, offer to sell, contract or agree to sell, hypothecate, pledge, grant any option to purchase or otherwise dispose of or agree to dispose of, directly or indirectly, or file (or participate in the filing of) a registration statement with the SEC in respect of, or establish or increase a put equivalent position or liquidate or decrease a call equivalent position within the meaning of Section 16 of the 1934 Act, and the rules and regulations of the SEC promulgated thereunder with respect to, any Shares of the Company or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock, or warrants or other rights to purchase Shares, (ii) enter into any swap or other arrangement that transfers to another, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership of Shares or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for Shares, or warrants or other rights to purchase Shares, whether any such transaction is to be settled by delivery of Shares or such other securities, in cash or otherwise, or (iii) publicly announce an intention to effect any transaction specified in clause (i) or (ii) (collectively, “Prohibited Activities”).

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Investor may, without any further action on the part of the Company (but subject to any underwriters’ lock-up or other contractual restriction the Investor may be a party to pursuant to Appendix H or otherwise), beginning on the date that is 180 calendar days after the Qualified IPO, Transfer Shares in transactions exempt from registration under the Securities Act (pursuant to Rule 144 or otherwise), provided that aggregate proceeds from such sales (a) may not exceed 10% of the Investor’s Capital Commitment prior to the first anniversary of the completion of the Qualified IPO and (b) may not exceed 20% of the Investor’s Capital Commitment during the period beginning on the first anniversary of the completion of the Qualified IPO and ending on the second anniversary of the completion of the Qualified IPO. In addition, the Investor shall have the registration and resale rights set forth in Appendix H, which rights are in addition to those granted in the preceding sentence.

(g) The Investor has been furnished and has carefully read this Subscription Agreement, each Operative Document, in each case as amended, restated and/or supplemented through the closing date of the Investor’s subscription for Shares, a current copy of the Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures of the Adviser and, to the extent the Investor is a natural person, a current copy of the Carlyle GMS Finance, Inc. Privacy Notice. The Investor has such knowledge and experience in financial and business matters as to be capable of evaluating the merits and risks of an investment in the Shares, is able to bear the risks of an investment in the Shares and understands the risks of, and other considerations relating to, a purchase of Shares, including the matters set forth under the caption “Risk Factors” in the Memorandum.

 

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(h) To the full satisfaction of the Investor, the Investor has been furnished any materials the Investor has requested relating to the Company, the offering of Shares or any statement made in the Memorandum, and the Investor has been afforded the opportunity to ask questions of representatives of the Company concerning the terms and conditions of the offering and to obtain any additional information necessary to verify the accuracy of any representations or information set forth in the Memorandum.

(i) Other than as set forth in this Subscription Agreement, the Operative Documents and any separate agreement in writing with the Company executed in conjunction with the Investor’s subscription for Shares, the Investor is not relying upon any other information (including, without limitation, any advertisement, article, notice or other communication published in any newspaper, magazine, website or similar media or broadcast over television or radio, and any seminars or meetings whose attendees have been invited by any general solicitation or advertising), representation or warranty by the Company, its Adviser or any affiliate of the foregoing or any agent of them, written or otherwise, in determining to invest in the Company and the Investor understands that the Memorandum is not intended to convey tax or legal advice. The Investor has consulted to the extent deemed appropriate by the Investor with the Investor’s own advisers as to the financial, tax, legal, accounting, regulatory and related matters concerning an investment in Shares and on that basis understands the financial, tax, legal, accounting, regulatory and related consequences of an investment in Shares, and believes that an investment in the Shares is suitable and appropriate for the Investor.

(j) If the Investor is not a natural person, (i) the Investor was not formed or recapitalized for the specific purpose of acquiring any Shares in the Company, (ii) the Investor has the power and authority to enter into this Subscription Agreement and each other document required to be executed and delivered by the Investor in connection with this subscription for Shares, and to perform its obligations hereunder and thereunder and consummate the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby and (iii) the person signing this Subscription Agreement on behalf of the Investor has been duly authorized to execute and deliver this Subscription Agreement and each other document required to be executed and delivered by the Investor in connection with this subscription for Shares. If the Investor is a natural person, the Investor has all requisite legal capacity to acquire and hold the Shares and to execute, deliver and comply with the terms of each of the documents required to be executed and delivered by the Investor in connection with this subscription for Shares. The execution and delivery by the Investor of, and compliance by the Investor with, this Subscription Agreement and each other document required to be executed and delivered by the Investor in connection with this subscription for Shares does not violate, represent a breach of, or constitute a default under, any instruments governing the Investor, any law, regulation or order, or any agreement to which the Investor is a party or by which the Investor is bound.

(k) The Investor: (i) is not registered or required to be registered as an investment company under the 1940 Act; (ii) has not elected to be regulated as a business development company under the 1940 Act; and (iii) either (A) is not relying on the exception from the definition of “investment company” under the 1940 Act set forth in Section 3(c)(1) or 3(c)(7) thereunder or (B) is otherwise permitted to acquire and hold more than 3% of the outstanding voting securities of a business development company.

 

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(l) The Investor understands that the Company will not initially be registered as an investment company under the 1940 Act in reliance upon an exemption from registration provided by Section 3(c)(7) thereunder, and it agrees that, until such time that the Company registers as an investment company under the 1940 Act, any Shares acquired by the Subscriber may not be Transferred in any manner that would require the Company to register as an investment company under the 1940 Act. The Investor understands that the Company will initially rely upon an exemption from registration which requires each Investor to be either a “qualified purchaser” as defined in Section 2(a)(51)(A) of the 1940 Act (a “Qualified Purchaser”) or a “knowledgeable employee” as defined in Rule 3c-5 under the 1940 Act (a “Knowledgeable Employee”), and the Subscriber represents and warrants that it is a Qualified Purchaser or Knowledgeable Employee.

(m) Representations for Non-U.S. Persons.

(i) If the Investor is not a “United States Person,” as defined below (a “non-U.S. Person”), the Investor has heretofore notified the Company in writing of such status. For this purpose, “United States Person” means a citizen or resident of the United States, a corporation, partnership or other entity created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or any political subdivision thereof, an estate the income of which is subject to United States federal income taxation regardless of its source, or any trust (i) the administration of which may be subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and (ii) the authority to control all of the substantial decisions of which is held by one or more U.S. persons.

(ii) The Investor will notify the Company immediately if the Investor becomes a United States Person.

(iii) The Investor is acquiring the Shares for its own account for investment purposes only and is not subscribing on behalf of or funding its commitment with funds obtained from a United States Person.

(iv) Except for offers and sales to discretionary or similar accounts held for the benefit or account of a non-U.S. Person by a U.S. dealer or other professional fiduciary, all offers to sell and offers to buy the Interest were made to or by the Investor while the Investor was outside the United States and at the time the Investor’s order to buy the Shares originated (and at the time this Subscription Agreement was executed by the Investor) the Investor was outside the United States.

(n) If the Investor is, or is acting (directly or indirectly) on behalf of, a “Plan” (defined below) which is subject to Title I of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, or any provisions of any other federal, state, local, non-U.S. or other laws or regulations that are similar to those provisions contained in such portions of ERISA or the Code (collectively, “Other Plan Laws”): (1) the decision to invest in the Company was made by a fiduciary (within the meaning of Section 3(21) of ERISA and the regulations thereunder, or as defined under applicable Other

 

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Plan Laws) (a “Fiduciary”) of the Plan which is unrelated to the Adviser or any of its employees, representatives or affiliates and which is duly authorized to make such an investment decision on behalf of the Plan (the “Plan Fiduciary”); (2) the Plan Fiduciary has taken into consideration its fiduciary duties under ERISA or any applicable Other Plan Law, including the diversification requirements of Section 404(a)(1)(C) of ERISA (if applicable), in authorizing the Plan’s investment in the Company, and has concluded that such investment is prudent; (3) the Plan’s subscription to invest in the Company and the purchase of Shares contemplated hereby is in accordance with the terms of the Plan’s governing instruments and complies with all applicable requirements of ERISA, the Code and all applicable Other Plan Laws and does not constitute a non-exempt prohibited transaction under ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code or a similar violation under any applicable Other Plan Laws; and (4) the Plan Fiduciary acknowledges and agrees that neither the Adviser nor any of its employees, representatives or affiliates will be a fiduciary with respect to the Plan as a result of the Plan’s investment in the Company, pursuant to the provisions of ERISA or any applicable Other Plan Laws, or otherwise, and the Plan Fiduciary has not relied on, and is not relying on, the investment advice of any such person with respect to the Plan’s investment in the Company. “Plan” includes (i) an employee benefit plan (within the meaning of Section 3(3) of ERISA), whether or not such plan is subject to Title I of ERISA, (ii) a plan, individual retirement account or other arrangement that is described in Section 4975 of the Code, whether or not such plan, individual retirement account or other arrangement is subject to Section 4975 of the Code, (iii) an insurance company using general account assets, if such general account assets are deemed to include the assets of any of the foregoing types of plans, accounts or arrangements for purposes of Title I of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code under Section 401(c)(1)(A) of ERISA or the regulations promulgated thereunder and (iv) an entity which is deemed to hold the assets of any of the foregoing types of plans, accounts or arrangements, pursuant to ERISA or otherwise.

(o) The Investor agrees to notify the Company in writing in the event (i) the Investor either becomes or ceases to be a “benefit plan investor” within the meaning of Section 3(42) of ERISA, as modified by 29 CFR 2510.3-101(f)(2) or under any Other Plan Law (a “Benefit Plan Investor”), (ii) the Investor reasonably expects that the Investor will become or cease to be a Benefit Plan Investor, or (iii) if the Investor is an entity that is deemed to hold the assets of any of Plan pursuant to ERISA or any Other Plan Law, the percentage of such Investor’s assets attributable to Plans either increases or decreases. The Investor also agrees to, within 15 business days of the receipt of a written request from the Company, provide a written update to the Company with regard to any of the foregoing. If the Company, in its sole discretion, determines that so doing would be useful in ensuring that equity participation in the Company is not significant within the meaning of 29 CFR 2510.3-101(f), the Company may require any Benefit Plan Investor to transfer some or all of its common stock for fair market value (as determined by the Company in its sole discretion) to an Investor other than a Benefit Plan Investor (whether an existing Investor or a new Investor). The Investor shall have no claim against the Company, the Administrator, the Manager or any of their respective affiliates for any form of damages or liability as a result of any such transfer.

(q) If the investment in the Shares is being made on behalf of an employee benefit plan maintained outside of the United States primarily for the benefit of persons substantially all of whom are nonresident aliens (as described in Section 4(b)(4) of ERISA), (i)

 

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there is no provision in the instruments governing such plan or any federal, state or local or foreign law, rule, regulation or constitutional provision applicable to the plan that could in any respect affect the operation of the Company, including operations of the Adviser as contemplated by the Advisory Agreement, or prohibit any action contemplated by the Operative Documents and related disclosure of the Company, including, without limitation, the investments which may be made pursuant to the Company’s investment strategies, the concentration of investments for the Company and the payment by the plan of incentive or other fees, and (ii) the plan’s investment in the Company will not conflict with or violate the instruments governing such plan or any federal, state or local or foreign law, rule, regulation or constitutional provision applicable to the plan.

(r) The Investor was offered the Shares through private negotiations, not through any general solicitation or general advertising, and in the state listed in the Investor’s permanent address set forth in the Investor Questionnaire.

(s)(i) Neither the Investor, nor any of its affiliates or beneficial owners, (A) appears on the Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons List of the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“OFAC”), nor are they otherwise a party with which any entity is prohibited to deal under the laws of the United States, or (B) is a person identified as a terrorist organization on any other relevant lists maintained by governmental authorities. The Investor further represents and warrants that the monies used to fund the investment in the Shares are not derived from, invested for the benefit of, or related in any way to, the governments of, or persons within, any country (1) under a U.S. embargo enforced by OFAC, (2) that has been designated as a “non-cooperative country or territory” by the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering or (3) that has been designated by the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury as a “primary money laundering concern.” The Investor further represents and warrants that the Investor: (I) has conducted thorough due diligence with respect to all of its beneficial owners, (II) has established the identities of all beneficial owners and the source of each of the beneficial owner’s funds and (III) will retain evidence of any such identities, any such source of funds and any such due diligence. Pursuant to anti-money laundering laws and regulations, the Company may be required to collect documentation verifying the Investor’s identity and the source of funds used to acquire an Interest before, and from time to time after, acceptance by the Company of this Subscription Agreement. The Investor further represents and warrants that the Investor does not know or have any reason to suspect that (x) the monies used to fund the Investor’s investment in the Shares have been or will be derived from or related to any illegal activities, including, but not limited to, money laundering activities, and (y) the proceeds from the Investor’s investment in the Shares will be used to finance any illegal activities.

(ii) The Investor will provide to the Company at any time such information as the Company determines to be necessary or appropriate (A) to comply with the anti-money laundering laws, rules and regulations of any applicable jurisdiction and (B) to respond to requests for information concerning the identity of Investors from any governmental authority, self-regulatory organization or financial institution in connection with its anti-money laundering compliance procedures, or to update such information.

 

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(iii) To comply with applicable U.S. anti-money laundering laws and regulations, all payments and contributions by the Investor to the Company and all payments and distributions to the Investor from the Company will only be made in the Investor’s name and to and from a bank account of a bank based or incorporated in or formed under the laws of the United States or that is regulated in and either based or incorporated in or formed under the laws of the United States and that is not a “foreign shell bank” within the meaning of the U.S. Bank Secrecy Act (31 U.S.C. § 5311 et seq.), as amended, and the regulations promulgated thereunder by the U.S. Department of the Treasury, as such regulations may be amended from time to time.

(iv) The representations and warranties set forth in this Section 8(s) shall be deemed repeated and reaffirmed by the Investor to the Company as of each date that the Investor is required to make a capital contribution to, or receives a distribution from, the Company. If at any time during the term of the Company, the representations and warranties set forth in this Section 8(s) cease to be true, the Investor shall promptly so notify the Company in writing.

(v) The Investor understands and agrees that the Company may not accept any amounts from a prospective Investor if such prospective Investor cannot make the representations set forth in this Section 8(s).

(t) In the event that the Investor is, receives deposits from, makes payments to or conducts transactions relating to, a non-U.S. banking institution (a “Non-U.S. Bank”) in connection with the Investor’s investment in Shares, such Non-U.S. Bank: (i) has a fixed address, other than an electronic address or a post office box, in a country in which it is authorized to conduct banking activities, (ii) employs one or more individuals on a full-time basis, (iii) maintains operating records related to its banking activities, (iv) is subject to inspection by the banking authority that licensed it to conduct banking activities and (v) does not provide banking services to any other Non-U.S. Bank that does not have a physical presence in any country and that is not a registered affiliate. The Investor agrees and acknowledges that, among other remedial measures, (A) in order to comply with governmental regulations and/or if the Company determines in its sole discretion that such action is in the best interests of the Company, the Company may “freeze the account” of the Investor, either by prohibiting additional investments by the Investor, segregating assets of the Investor and/or suspending other rights the Investor may have under the Operative Documents and (B) the Company may be required to report such action or confidential information relating to the Investor (including without limitation, disclosing the Investor’s identity) to regulatory authorities.

(u) The Investor acknowledges that, in order to comply with the provisions of the U.S. Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”) and avoid the imposition of U.S. federal withholding tax, the Company may, from time to time, require further information and/or documentation from the Investor and, if and to the extent required under FATCA, the Investor’s direct and indirect beneficial owners (if any), relating to or establishing any such owner’s identity, residence (or jurisdiction of formation), income tax status, and other required information and may provide or disclose such information and documentation to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service. The Investor agrees that it shall provide such information and documentation concerning itself and its beneficial owners, if any, as and when requested by the

 

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Company sufficient for the Company to comply with its obligations under FATCA. The Investor acknowledges that, if the Investor does not provide the requested information and documentation, the Company may, at its sole option and in addition to all other remedies available at law or in equity, prohibit additional investments, decline or delay any redemption requests by the Investor and/or deduct from such Investor’s account and retain amounts sufficient to indemnify and hold harmless the Company from any and all withholding taxes, interest, penalties and other losses or liabilities suffered by the Company on account of the Investor’s not providing all requested information and documentation in a timely manner. The Investor shall have no claim against the Company, the Administrator, the Adviser or any of their respective affiliates for any form of damages or liability as a result of any of the aforementioned actions.

(v) The Investor acknowledges that the Company intends to enter into one or more revolving credit facilities with one or more syndicates of banks or to incur indebtedness in lieu of or in advance of Capital Contributions. In connection therewith, each Investor hereby agrees to cooperate with the Company and provide financial information and other documentation reasonably and customarily required to obtain such facilities.

(w) None of the information concerning the Investor nor any statement, certification, representation or warranty made by the Investor in this Subscription Agreement or in any document required to be provided under this Subscription Agreement (including, without limitation, the Investor Questionnaire and any forms W-9 or W-8 (W-8BEN, W-8IMY, W-8ECI or W-8EXP), as applicable, contains any untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements contained therein or herein not misleading.

(x) The Investor agrees that the foregoing certifications, representations, warranties, covenants and agreements shall survive the acceptance of this Subscription Agreement, each Capital Drawdown Date and the dissolution of the Company, without limitation as to time. Without limiting the foregoing, the Investor agrees to give the Company prompt written notice in the event that any statement, certification, representation or warranty of the Investor contained in this Section 8 or any information provided by the Investor herein or in any document required to be provided under this Subscription Agreement (including, without limitation, the Investor Questionnaire and any forms W-9 or W-8 (W-8BEN, W-8IMY, W-8ECI or W-8EXP), as applicable, ceases to be true at any time following the date hereof.

(y) The Investor agrees to provide such information and execute and deliver such documents as the Company may reasonably request to verify the accuracy of the Investor’s representations and warranties herein or to comply with any law or regulation to which the Company, the Adviser, the Administrator or a portfolio company may be subject.

(z) The execution, delivery and performance of this Subscription Agreement by the Investor do not and will not result in a breach of any of the terms, conditions or provisions of, or constitute a default under, any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, credit agreement, note or other evidence of indebtedness, or any lease or other agreement, or any license, permit, franchise or certificate, to which the Investor is a party or by which it is bound or to which any of its

 

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properties are subject, or require any authorization or approval under or pursuant to any of the foregoing, violate the organizational documents of the Investor, or violate any statute, regulation, law, order, writ, injunction or decree to which the Investor is subject. The Investor has obtained all authorizations, consents, approvals and clearances of all courts, governmental agencies and authorities and such other persons, if any, required to permit the Investor to enter into this Subscription Agreement and to consummate the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby.

9. Dividend Reinvestment. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary provided in Section 5, in the event that the Investor has not otherwise elected to receive its dividends in cash and the reinvestment of any dividend (or any portion thereof) on behalf of the Investor would cause the Investor to hold in aggregate more than three percent (3%) of the outstanding Shares, the Investor shall be deemed to have elected to receive such dividend (or any portion thereof) in cash (but only to the extent necessary to avoid the occurrence of the foregoing consequence).

10. Public Pension Fund Reform Code of Conduct. If the Investor is a retirement plan established or maintained for its employees (current or former) by the Government of the United States, the government of any State or political subdivision thereof, or by any agency or instrumentality of any of the foregoing (a “Government Plan”), then:

(a) the Company certifies to such Government Plan that, as of the date hereof, all provisions of the Public Pension Fund Reform Code of Conduct adopted by The Carlyle Group, predecessor to The Carlyle Group L.P. (“Carlyle”), on May 14, 2009 (as such Code may be amended, modified or supplemented from time to time, the “Code of Conduct”) are in full force and effect and that Carlyle, after making such inquiries as are required by the Code of Conduct, is in compliance therewith and will continue to remain in compliance with Paragraph 3 thereof throughout the term of the Company; provided that, notwithstanding the foregoing, the Government Plan acknowledges that Paragraphs 19 through 23 of the Code of Conduct are inapplicable to the Company and that conflicts of interest matters are addressed in the Memorandum, as contemplated by Paragraph 24 of the Code of Conduct;

(b) the Government Plan acknowledges and agrees pursuant to Paragraph 15 of the Code of Conduct that confidential or sensitive information about the Government Plan may be disclosed in connection with the activities of the Company;

(c) the Government Plan acknowledges that (i) the disclosures made by Carlyle pursuant to the Code of Conduct are made available for review on the Company’s website; (ii) such disclosures will be updated regularly and will remain available for review on such website; and (iii) a copy of the Code of Conduct is available upon request;

(d) notwithstanding Section 18 of the Code of Conduct, neither the Company nor Carlyle nor their respective affiliates shall be subject to such Government Plan’s regulations and internal rules and policies that are not otherwise applicable to such person; and

(e) in the event that there has been a finding by any court or governmental body of competent jurisdiction in a final judgment or an admission by Carlyle in a settlement of any lawsuit (provided, for the avoidance of doubt, that the settlement of a lawsuit shall not in and

 

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of itself be deemed an admission) that Carlyle has materially violated the Code of Conduct with respect to such Government Plan and such material violation has not been cured (to the extent curable) within 60 calendar days after such finding or admission, then such Government Plan shall be excused from its obligation to purchase additional Shares from the Company in connection with any Funding Notice, provided that, within seven calendar days after such Government Plan has received such Funding Notice, such Government Plan shall have notified the Company of its intention to exercise such excuse right.

11. Further Advice and Assurances. All information which the Investor has provided to the Company, including the information in the Investor Questionnaire, is true, correct and complete as of the date hereof, and the Investor agrees to notify the Company immediately if any representation, warranty or information contained in this Subscription Agreement or any of the information in the Investor Questionnaire, becomes untrue at any time. The Investor agrees to provide such information and execute and deliver such documents with respect to itself and its direct and indirect beneficial owners as the Company may from time to time reasonably request to verify the accuracy of the Investor’s representations and warranties herein, establish the identity of the Investor and the direct and indirect participants in its investment in Shares, to the extent applicable, to effect any transfer and admission and/or to comply with any law, rule or regulation to which the Company may be subject, including, without limitation, compliance with anti-money laundering laws and regulations or for any other reasonable purpose.

12. Power of Attorney. (a) The Investor, by its execution hereof, hereby irrevocably makes, constitutes and appoints the Company as its true and lawful agent and attorney-in-fact, with full power of substitution and full power and authority in its name, place and stead, to make, execute, sign, acknowledge, swear to, record and file:

(i) any and all filings required to be made by the Investor under the 1934 Act with respect to any of the Company’s securities which may be deemed to be beneficially owned by the Investor under the 1934 Act;

(ii) all certificates and other instruments deemed advisable by the Company in order for the Company to enter into any borrowing or pledging arrangement;

(iii) all certificates and other instruments deemed advisable by the Company to comply with the provisions of this Subscription Agreement and applicable law or to permit the Company to become or to continue as a business development corporation; and

(iv) all other instruments or papers not inconsistent with the terms of this Subscription Agreement which may be required by law to be filed on behalf of the Company.

(b) With respect to the Investor and the Company, the foregoing power of attorney:

(i) is coupled with an interest and shall be irrevocable;

 

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(ii) may be exercised by the Company either by signing separately as attorney-in-fact for the Investor or, after listing all of the Investors executing an instrument, by a single signature of the Company acting as attorney-in-fact for all of them;

(iii) shall survive the assignment by the Investor of the whole or any fraction of its Shares;

(iv) shall terminate concurrently with the termination of the Capital Commitment, in accordance with Section 3(f); and

(v) may not be used by the Company in any manner that is inconsistent with the terms of this Subscription Agreement and any other written agreement between the Company and the Investor.

13. Indemnity. The Investor understands that the information provided herein (including the Investor Questionnaire) will be relied upon by the Company for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the Investor to purchase Shares in the Company. The Investor agrees to provide, if requested, any additional information that may reasonably be required to determine the eligibility of the Investor to purchase Shares in the Company. To the fullest extent permitted under applicable law, the Investor agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, the Adviser, the Administrator, and their affiliates and each partner, member, officer, director, employee, and agent thereof, from and against any loss, damage or liability due to or arising out of a breach of any representation, warranty or agreement of the Investor contained in this Subscription Agreement (including the Investor Questionnaire) or in any other document provided by the Investor to the Company or in any agreement executed by the Investor in connection with the Investor’s investment in Shares.

14. Miscellaneous. This Subscription Agreement is not transferable or assignable by the Investor. Any purported assignment of this Subscription Agreement will be null and void. The representations and warranties made by the Investor in this Subscription Agreement (including the Investor Questionnaire) shall survive the closing of the transactions contemplated hereby and any investigation made by the Company. The Investor Questionnaire, including without limitation the representations and warranties contained therein, is an integral part of this Subscription Agreement and shall be deemed incorporated by reference herein. This Subscription Agreement may be executed in one or more counterparts, all of which together shall constitute one instrument. Notwithstanding the place where this Subscription Agreement may be executed by any of the parties hereto, the parties expressly agree that this Subscription Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of Delaware, without giving effect to the choice of law principles thereof. To the fullest extent permitted by law, the sole and exclusive forum for any action, suit or proceeding with respect to this Subscription Agreement shall be a federal or state court located in the state of Delaware, provided that to the extent the appropriate court located in the state of Delaware determines that it does not have jurisdiction over such action, then the sole and exclusive forum shall be any federal or state court located in the state of Maryland, and each party hereto, to the fullest extent permitted by law, hereby irrevocably waives any objection that it may have, whether now or in the future, to the laying of venue

 

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in, or to the jurisdiction of, any and each of such courts for the purposes of any such action, suit or proceeding and further waives any claim that any such action, suit or proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum, and each party hereto hereby submits to such jurisdiction and consents to process being served in any such action, suit or proceeding, without limitation, by United States mail addressed to the party at the parties address specified herein or in the Investor Questionnaire. EACH OF THE PARTIES HERETO HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO THIS SUBSCRIPTION AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW.

15. Confidentiality. The Investor acknowledges that the Memorandum and other information relating to the Company has been submitted to the Investor on a confidential basis for use solely in connection with the Investor’s consideration of the purchase of Shares. The Investor agrees that, without the prior written consent of the Company (which consent may be withheld at the sole discretion of the Company), the Investor shall not (a) reproduce the Memorandum or any other information relating to the Company, in whole or in part, or (b) disclose the Memorandum or any other information relating to the Company to any person who is not an officer or employee of the Investor who is involved in its investments, or partner (general or limited) or affiliate of the Investor (it being understood and agreed that if the Investor is a pooled investment fund, it shall only be permitted to disclose the Memorandum or other information related to the Company if the Investor has required its investors to enter into confidentiality undertakings no less onerous than the provisions of this Section 15), except to the extent (1) such information is in the public domain (other than as a result of any action or omission of Investor or any person to whom the Investor has disclosed such information) or (2) such information is required by applicable law or regulation to be disclosed. The Investor further agrees to return the Memorandum and any other information relating to the Company if no purchase of Shares is made or upon the Company’s request therefore. The Investor acknowledges and agrees that monetary damages would not be sufficient remedy for any breach of this section by it, and that in addition to any other remedies available to the Company in respect of any such breach, the Company shall be entitled to specific performance and injunctive or other equitable relief as a remedy for any such breach.

16. Necessary Acts, Further Assurances. The parties shall at their own cost and expense execute and deliver such further documents and instruments and shall take such other actions as may be reasonably required or appropriate to evidence or carry out the intent and purposes of this Subscription Agreement or to show the ability to carry out the intent and purposes of this Subscription Agreement.

17. No Joint Liability Among the Company, the Adviser, and the Administrator. The Company shall not be liable for the fulfillment of any obligation or the accuracy of any representation of the Adviser or the Administrator under or in connection with this Subscription Agreement. The Adviser shall not be liable for the fulfillment of any obligation or the accuracy of any representation of the Company or the Administrator under or in connection with this Subscription Agreement. The Administrator shall not be liable for the fulfillment of any obligation or the accuracy of any representation of the Company or the

 

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Adviser under or in connection with this Subscription Agreement. There shall be no joint and several liability of the Company, the Adviser, and the Administrator for any obligation under or in connection with this Subscription Agreement.

18. Independent Nature of Investors’ Obligations and Rights. Third-Party Beneficiaries. The obligations of the Investor hereunder are several and not joint with the obligations of any Other Investor. Nothing contained herein or in any other agreement or document delivered at any closing, and no action taken by the Investor pursuant hereto or thereto, shall be deemed to constitute the Investors as a partnership, an association, a joint venture or any other kind of entity, or create a presumption that the Investors are in any way acting in concert with respect to such obligations or the transactions contemplated by this Agreement. This Agreement is not intended to confer upon any person, other than the parties hereto, except as provided in Sections 3(h), 4, 7(b) and 13, any rights or remedies hereunder.

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned has executed this Subscription Agreement as a deed on the date set forth below.

 

Date:  

 

    Amount of Capital Commitment
      $  

 

      INDIVIDUAL INVESTOR:
     

 

                                   (Print Name)
     

 

                                   (Signature)
      PARTNERSHIP, CORPORATION, LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY, TRUST, CUSTODIAL ACCOUNT, OTHER INVESTOR:
     

 

                                   (Print Name of Entity)
      By:  

 

                                   (Signature)
     

 

                                   (Print Name and Title)

Agreed and accepted as of the date first set forth above:

 

CARLYLE GMS FINANCE, INC.

By:

 

 

Name:

Title:

 

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INVESTOR QUESTIONNAIRE

 

Note: Questions regarding this questionnaire should be directed to [] or []@Carlyle.com.

 

A. General Information

 

1.           Print Full Name of Investor

  Individual:
   

 

  First            Middle             Last
   

 

  Entity Name
  Entity: To assist the Company in preparing the its tax filings, please check the category into which you fall:
 

Partnership

  ¨
 

C-Corporation

  ¨
 

S-Corporation

  ¨
 

Estate

  ¨
 

Grantor Trust

  ¨
 

Trust-EIN (a trust with an

EIN in this format: 12-3456789)

  ¨
 

Trust-SSN (a trust with an

EIN in this format: 123-45-6789)

  ¨
 

IRA-EIN

  ¨
 

IRA-SSN

  ¨
 

Exempt Organization

  ¨
 

LLP

  ¨
 

LLC

  ¨
 

Nominee-EIN

  ¨
 

Nominee-SSN

  ¨
 

Other

  ¨

2.           U.S. Taxpayer Identification or
Social Security Number:

   

3.           Date of Birth:

   

4.           Primary Contact Person For This Account and for General Notices:

Name:                                                                      

 

Address:                                                                 

 

 

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Telephone:                                                                 

  

Fax:                                                                               

  

 

5. Contact Person(s) For This Account for Financial Information and Reporting (including quarterly and annual financial reports and capital account statements):

 

Name:                                                                                                                      

     Name:                                                                                                            

Address:                                                                                                                  

     Address:                                                                                                        

                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                               

Telephone:                                                                                                              

     Telephone:                                                                                                   

Fax:                                                                                                                           

     Fax:                                                                                                                

E-mail:                                                                                                                     

     E-mail:                                                                                                          

 

6. Contact Person(s) For This Account for Capital Call and Distribution Notices:

 

Name:                                                                                                                      

     Name:                                                                                                            

Address:                                                                                                                  

     Address:                                                                                                        

                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                               

Telephone:                                                                                                              

     Telephone:                                                                                                   

Fax:                                                                                                                           

     Fax:                                                                                                                

E-mail:                                                                                                                     

     E-mail:                                                                                                          

 

7. Contact Person For This Account for Legal Documentation (please limit to one contact):

 

Name:                                                                                                                      

    

Address:                                                                                                                  

    

                                                                                                                                   

    

Telephone:                                                                                                              

    

Fax:                                                                                                                           

    

E-mail:                                                                                                                     

    

 

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8.      Contact Person For This Account for Tax Matters (including Form 1099 distribution) (please limit to one contact):

Name:                                                                                                                      

    

Address:                                                                                                                  

    

                                                                                                                                   

    

Telephone:                                                                                                              

    

Fax:                                                                                                                           

    

E-mail:                                                                                                                     

    

 

9.      For distributions of cash, please wire funds to the following bank account:

         Bank Name:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

         Bank Location:                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

         Account Number:                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

         Account Name:                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

         Bank’s Routing No.:                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

         For further credit to:                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

         (if any)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

         Reference:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

         SWIFT Code:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

10.    For distributions in-kind, please:

         Credit securities to my brokerage account at the following firm:

         Firm Name:

         Address:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            

         Account Name:                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

         Account Number:                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

         DTC Number                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

 

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11.    Permanent Address of Investor:

(if different from address

for Notices above)                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

 

B. Accredited Investor Status

The Investor represents and warrants that the Investor is an “accredited investor” within the meaning of Rule 501 of Regulation D under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”), and has checked the box or boxes below which are next to the category or categories under which the Investor qualifies as an accredited investor:

FOR INDIVIDUALS:

 

¨    (A)    A natural person with individual net worth (or joint net worth with spouse) in excess of $1 million. For purposes of this item, “net worth” means the excess of total assets at fair market value, including automobiles and other personal property and property owned by a spouse, but excluding the value of the primary residence of such natural person, over total liabilities. For this purpose, the amount of any mortgage or other indebtedness secured by an Investor’s primary residence should not be included as a “liability”, except to the extent the fair market value of the residence is less than the amount of such mortgage or other indebtedness.
¨    (B)    A natural person with individual income (without including any income of the Investor’s spouse) in excess of $200,000, or joint income with spouse in excess of $300,000, in each of the two most recent years and who reasonably expects to reach the same income level in the current year.

FOR ENTITIES:

 

¨    (A)    An entity, including a grantor trust, in which all of the equity owners are accredited investors (for this purpose, a beneficiary of a trust is not an equity owner, but the grantor of a grantor trust may be an equity owner).
¨    (B)    A bank as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the 1933 Act, or any savings and loan association or other institution as defined in Section 3(a)(5)(A) of the 1933 Act whether acting in its individual or fiduciary capacity.

 

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¨    (C)    An insurance company as defined in Section 2(a)(13) of the 1933 Act.
¨    (D)    A broker-dealer registered pursuant to Section 15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “1934 Act”).
¨    (E)    An investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”).
¨    (F)    A business development company as defined in Section 2(a)(48) of the 1940 Act.
¨    (G)    A Small Business Investment Company licensed by the Small Business Administration under Section 301(c) or (d) of the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, as amended.
¨    (H)    A private business development company as defined in Section 202(a)(22) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the “Advisers Act”).
¨    (I)    A corporation, an organization described in Section 501(c)(3) of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, Massachusetts or similar business trust, or partnership, in each case not formed for the specific purpose of acquiring Shares, with total assets in excess of $5 million.
¨    (J)    A trust with total assets in excess of $5 million not formed for the specific purpose of acquiring Shares, whose purchase is directed by a person with such knowledge and experience in financial and business matters as to be capable of evaluating the merits and risks of an investment in the Shares.
¨    (K)    An employee benefit plan within the meaning of the United States Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”) if the decision to invest in the Shares is made by a plan fiduciary, as defined in Section 3(21) of ERISA, which is either a bank, savings and loan association,

 

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      insurance company, or registered investment adviser, or if the employee benefit plan has total assets in excess of $5 million or, if a self-directed plan, with investment decisions made solely by persons that are accredited investors.
¨    (L)    A plan established and maintained by a state, its political subdivisions, or any agency or instrumentality of a state or its political subdivisions for the benefit of its employees, if the plan has total assets in excess of $5 million.

 

C. Supplemental Data for Individuals

Please indicate whether you are investing the assets of any retirement plan, employee benefit plan or other similar agreement (such as an IRA or “Keogh” plan).

q    Yes            q     No

If the above question was answered “Yes,” please contact the Company for additional information that will be required.

 

D. Supplemental Data for Entities

1. If the Investor is not a natural person, the Investor must furnish the following supplemental data (Natural persons may skip this Section of the Investor Questionnaire):

 

Legal form of entity (trust, corporation, partnership, limited liability company, etc.):                                                                                        

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

Jurisdiction of organization and location of domicile:                                                                                                                                                     

Is the Investor (a) a trust any portion of which is treated (under subpart E of part I of subchapter J of chapter 1 of subtitle A of the Code) as owned by a natural person (e.g., a grantor trust), (b) an entity disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes and owned (or treated as owned) by a natural person or a trust described in clause (a) of this sentence (e.g., a limited liability company with a single member), (c) an organization described in Sections 401(a) or 501 of the Code or (d) a trust permanently set aside or to be used for a charitable purpose?

q    Yes             q    No

Is the Investor acting on behalf of an unrelated third party (e.g., nominee arrangement)?

q    Yes             q    No

 

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If “Yes,” please describe the arrangement:                                                                                                                                                                 

Does the Investor have one or more ultimate beneficiaries who (a) are entitled to 10% or more of the proceeds from this investment or (b) hold 10% or more of the control rights of the Investor?

q    Yes1             q    No

Is the Investor or any of the ultimate beneficiaries publicly traded?

q    Yes*             q    No

Is the Investor or any of the ultimate beneficiaries a regulated entity?

q    Yes*             q    No

If the response to any of the above questions is “yes,” please complete the below chart.

 

Name of Investor and Each 10% Beneficial Owner   

If the Investor or Any of

the 10% Beneficial

Owners Is Publicly

Traded, Please Identify

the Exchange for the

Public Trading.

  

If the Investor or Any of the 10% Beneficial Owners Is a Regulated Entity, Please Identify Regulator

and Jurisdiction.

           
     
           
     
           
           

2. Was the Investor organized for the specific purpose of acquiring Shares?

q    Yes             q    No

If the above question was answered “Yes,” please contact the Company for additional information that will be required.

 

 

1  If yes, please provide further information in the chart above or, if there is insufficient space in the chart, please include additional sheets of paper with the relevant information.

 

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3.a. Is the Investor a grantor trust, a partnership or an S-Corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes?

q    Yes             q    No

3b. If the question above was answered “Yes,” please indicate whether or not:

(i) more than 50 percent of the value of the ownership interest of any beneficial owner in the Investor is (or may at any time during the term of the Entities be) attributable to the Investor’s (direct or indirect) interest in the Entities; or

q    Yes             q    No

(ii) it is a principal purpose of the Investor’s participation in the Company to permit any Entity to satisfy the 100 partner limitation contained in U.S. Treasury Regulation Section 1.7704-l(h)(3).

q    Yes            q     No

If either question above was answered “Yes,” please contact the Company for additional information that will be required.

4. Are shareholders, partners or other holders of equity or beneficial interests in the Investor able to decide individually whether to participate, or the extent of their participation, in the Investor’s investment in the Company (i.e., can shareholders, partners or other holders of equity or beneficial interests in the Investor determine whether their capital will form part of the capital invested by the Investor in the Company)?

q    Yes            q    No

If the above question was answered “Yes,” please contact the Company for additional information that will be required.

5.a. Please indicate whether or not the Investor is, or is acting (directly or indirectly) on behalf of, (i) an employee benefit plan (within the meaning of Section 3(3) of ERISA), whether or not such plan is subject to Title I of ERISA, (ii) a plan, individual retirement account or other arrangement that is described in Section 4975 of the Code, whether or not such plan, account or arrangement is subject to Section 4975 of the Code, (iii) an insurance company using general account assets, if such general account assets are deemed to include the assets of any of the foregoing types of plans, accounts or arrangements for purposes of Title I of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code under Section 401(c)(1)(A) of ERISA or the regulations promulgated thereunder, or (iv) an entity which is deemed to hold the assets of any of the foregoing types of plans, accounts or arrangements (each of the foregoing described in clauses (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) being referred to as a “Plan Investor”).

q    Yes            q     No

 

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5.b. If the Investor is, or is acting (directly or indirectly) on behalf of, such a Plan Investor, please indicate whether or not the Plan Investor is subject to Title I of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code.

q    Yes            q    No

5.c. If the answer to question 5 b. above is “Yes”, please indicate what percentage of the Plan Investor’s assets invested in the Entities are the assets of “benefit plan investors” within the meaning of Section 3(42) of ERISA as modified by 29 CFR 2510.3-101(f):

Percentage:                 

5.d. If the Investor is investing the assets of an insurance company general account, please indicate what percentage of the insurance company general account’s assets invested in the Entities are the assets of “benefit plan investors” within the meaning of Section 401(c)(1)(A) of ERISA or the regulations promulgated thereunder:

Percentage:                 

5.e. If the Plan Investor is not subject to Title I of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, please indicate whether or not such Plan Investor is subject to any other federal, state, local, non-U.S. or other laws or regulations that could cause the underlying assets of the Company to be treated as assets of the Plan Investor by virtue of its investment in the Company and thereby subject the Company and the Adviser (or other persons responsible for the investment and operation of the Company’s assets) to laws or regulations that are similar to the fiduciary responsibility or prohibited transaction provisions contained in Title I of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code.

q    Yes             q    No

6.a. Is the Investor a private investment company which is not registered under the 1940 Act in reliance on:

Section 3(c)(1) thereof?                                                     q    Yes            q    No

Section 3(c)(7) thereof?                                                     q    Yes            q    No

6.b. Does the amount of the Investor’s subscription for Shares in the Company exceed 40% of the total assets (on a consolidated basis with its subsidiaries) of the Investor?

q    Yes            q    No

6.c. If either part of question 6.a. was answered “Yes,” please indicate whether or not the Investor was formed on or before April 30, 1996.

q    Yes             q    No

6.d. If question 6.c. was answered “Yes,” please indicate whether or not the Investor has obtained the consent of its direct and indirect beneficial owners to be treated as a “qualified purchaser” as provided in Section 2(a)(51)(C) of the 1940 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder.

q  Yes            q  No

 

9


Copy No.:

For the Exclusive Use of:

 

If question 6.d. was answered “No,” please contact the Company for additional information that will be required.

7. Is the Investor an “investment company” registered or required to be registered under the 1940 Act, as amended?

q  Yes            q  No

8. If the Investor’s tax year ends on a date other than December 31, please indicate such date below:

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                   

9. Is the Investor subject to the U.S. Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552, (“FOIA”), any state public records access laws, any state or other jurisdiction’s laws similar in intent or effect to FOIA, or any other similar statutory or regulatory requirement that might result in the disclosure of confidential information relating to the Company?